A floor is exposed to high loads every day. Due to its robust and resistant material properties, parquet is therefore one of the most popular floor coverings.

However, in order for your parquet to withstand these stresses over a long period of time, it needs the correct cleaning and care. In this article you will learn how to maintain the different types of parquet properly and what is important in this respect.

What is the surface of the parquet?

Its surface is decisive for the optimal cleaning and maintenance of parquet.

Various types of surface finishing protect parquet from dirt, moisture and wear.

Parquet can either be oiled or waxed or lacquered .

Depending on the method, the parquet has differences in its resistance and therefore requires different care.

For oiled or waxed parquet, the surface of the floor is protected by applying parquet oil or wax.

The natural raw materials do not form an additional layer on the parquet, but penetrate into the wood and the surface is impregnated.

This keeps the pores of the wood open and breathable, which largely preserves the naturalness of the parquet and has a positive effect on the room climate.

However, loads on oiled or waxed soils can act directly, increasing the need for care.

In the case of lacquered parquet, on the other hand, the surface is completely sealed by applying parquet lacquer.

The additional protective layer makes the floor more robust and resistant to stress and is easier to maintain compared to oiled or waxed floors.

Initial maintenance of parquet

If parquet has been newly laid or freshly sanded, an appropriate initial care is recommended for oiled surfaces.

For this purpose, the parquet is treated with special parquet care oils after careful cleaning from dust and dirt (office chair mats, carpets or similar must be removed beforehand).

These ensure that the wood pores open completely and tannic acid in the wood is neutralised, making the parquet less susceptible to stains and scratches.

In the case of painted parquet, initial maintenance is not necessary in principle. However, in order to make the floor even more robust and resistant, a special parquet Polish can still be applied to the surface.

Regular cleaning of parquet

The basis for a long beautiful looking and well-kept parquet is the regular cleaning, which is basically the same for all parquet surfaces.

Ideally, parquet parquet should be cleaned dry in the first place. To remove loose dust or dirt, it is best to use a broom or a dry cotton cloth. When cleaning with a vacuum cleaner, it is essential to ensure that it is equipped with a parquet-compatible brush , otherwise scratches can easily occur.

For more thorough cleaning, the parquet should be wiped moist regularly.

It is important that not too much water is used, but that the parquet is only cleaned damply .

Carefully wrensed wipe covers made of pure cotton are optimally suited – a slinging system or a wipe press prove to be very helpful.

For oiled parquet, a small amount of wood floor soap should be added to the mopping water.

Due to the regreasing ingredients contained therein, such as coconut or soy fats, not only coarser dirt can be removed more easily, but the parquet is also additionally maintained during every swipe process.

For wiping with wooden floor soap, besides a bucket with the soapy water, a second bucket with clear water should be ready by flushing out the dirt.

As an alternative to wood floor soap, a oil fresher can be used at regular intervals (approx. every fifth wipe) to refresh the protection of the initial care.

The moist cleaning of painted parquet basically works the same as with oiled parquet. Only special paint soap is used as a cleaning agent instead of the wood floor soap.

Refreshment of parquet care

Even with careful cleaning, the daily stress leaves traces on the parquet floor over time.

Whether oiled or sealed parquet – unsightly signs of wear or minor damage such as scratches or stains can not be completely avoided on any surface.

Depending on the intensity of the stress, intensive cleaning and a refreshof of the parquet care are therefore required sooner or later.

Oiled Maintaining parquet

In order to maintain the protective oil layer as long as possible, the oiled parquet should be thoroughly cleaned regularly with an intensive cleaner and a single disc machine with black pad.

The surface of the parquet is then refreshed with care oil. Parquet care oil is available in both natural and different shades.

By refreshing the oil treatment, the wood becomes saturated and dulled parquet looks as if freshly laid again. The maintenance of oiled parquet should be repeated in living spaces every 2 to 4 years, or more often in the case of heavy use.

Sealed Maintaining parquet

In order to slow down the abrasion of the paint layer by dirt and dust particles, a temporary refresh is also necessary for painted parquet.

For this purpose, the parquet is first thoroughly cleaned with a suitable intensive cleaner and then applied a layer of undiluted paint care. The special care products contain polymer dispersion that reduces abrasion, refreshes the floor and masks minor scratches.

Parquet Care against scratches and stains

One of the most important differences between oiled and painted parquet is the handling in case of damage.

For stubborn stains, undiluted special cleaners are used for oiled surfaces, for varnished floors there are special intensive cleaners or stain removers. Turpentine or methylated spirits are also very useful for stains on sealed parquet.

In the case of scratches in the parquet, the effort is greater with painted parquet.

While fine scratches or cracks in the lacquer can be repaired with special repair kits, deeper scratches or other major damage requires sanding and resealing the entire parquet surface.

In the case of oiled parquet, however, this is not necessary. Even larger scratches or other damage can be partially repaired with relatively little effort.

For this purpose, only the affected area is sanded and a new layer of oil is applied. Fine scratches can also be removed with care oils or furniture polish.

Care products for parquet: This is what matters

Care products for parquet are available from numerous manufacturers in a wide variety of designs in DIY stores and specialist retailers.

The most well-known brands include

  • Dr. Schutz
  • Poliboy
  • Tilo
  • Haro
  • Woca
  • u. from above

Which products is best suited for the respective parquet always depends on the coating used. When purchasing the care product, care must be taken to ensure that it is suitable for the respective parquet surface. In addition, the product should not contain silicone oils or mineral oil derivatives if possible.

Better are care products with water-soluble and regreasing polymers or waxes.

Decisive for the selection of the appropriate parquet care is always the manufacturer’s care instructions. In most cases, it also contains specific product recommendations or is their own product series from the manufacturer.

The best tips for protecting, care and cleaning Parquet

  • Protect the parquet against too much dirt by placing protective mats in front of the door and not entering the floor with street shoes. It is best to use slippers or walk barefoot.
  • In particular, sharp, hard objects, such as small stones and sand, or shoe heels can quickly damage the parquet. Therefore, coarse dirt should be removed as soon as possible.
  • Fasten felt gliders to furniture, armchairs and table legs or use suitable floor protection mats in places subject to heavy use, such as desks. This will prevent pressure marks or scratches.
  • In order to protect the parquet floor from water or too much moisture, you should preferably not place houseplants directly on the floor. Use waterproof pots or plant rollers instead.
  • A balanced indoor climate also protects the parquet floor. Therefore, make sure that a humidity between 35 and 45 % and a constant room temperature between 20 and 22°C.
  • It is best to clean your parquet mainly dry with a soft broom or a dry cotton cloth. If you are using a vacuum cleaner, make sure you have a parquet-compatible brush.
  • It is essential that you only wipe the parquet with a damp cloth – preferably with a lint-free cotton mop. If water puddles appear, they must be dried as quickly as possible so that the moisture cannot penetrate the wood.
  • Use only special cleaning and care products that are explicitly suitable for your parquet. This applies to regular cleaning as well as intensive cleaning and care.
  • When cleaning your parquet floor, completely avoid microfibre cloths and aggressive cleaners or abrasive cleaners. Also steam cleaners are rather not suitable for parquet and may – if at all – only be used for fully glued, hard sealed parquet.
  • Get expert advice about the special requirements of your hardwood flooring in terms of cleaning and care. In addition, it is essential that you follow the care instructions of the manufacturer and keep the instructions of your parquet manufacturer carefully.

Parquet lacquer effectively equips the parquet for the daily influences. The parquet surface is sealed by the applied lacquer layer and receives the necessary protection. What is important when lacquering parquet, what types and manufacturers of parquet lacquer there are and what needs to be taken into account when sealing parquet can be found in the following guide.

Recommended parquet sealants from this article:

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What is painted parquet?

In order for parquet to receive the necessary protection against external influences, a corresponding surface finish is required.

It makes the wooden floor more resistant and robust, protects it from dirt, moisture or wear and tear and also gives the parquet the final touch to its appearance.

Parquet can either be finished with oil, wax or lacquer – which method is best depends on the degree of wear and tear and the personal demands on the parquet.

Pros and cons of lacquered parquet

In contrast to the refinement with oil or wax, which merely impregnates the parquet surface, the wood is fully sealed with parquet lacquer full surface .

The applied lacquer forms an additional protective layer on the parquet floor, which effectively protects the floor from dirt, abrasion and moisture.

Accordingly, painted parquet is considered to be more robust than oiled parquet.

Also with regard to parquet cleaning and parquet care, sealed parquet scores higher than impregnated parquet.

The painted surface is generally easier to clean and requires less post-treatment.

However, damage to the parquet varnish due to the full-surface sealing is not so easy to repair.

In contrast to oiled parquet, it is more often necessary to sand down the parquet and re-varnish it.

In addition, some of the naturalness of the floor is lost due to the parquet lacquer: the painted protective layer closes the pores of the wood and – unlike with oiled parquet – can no longer “breathe”.

In terms of the indoor climate, an oiled floor sometimes proves to be more advantageous, but the pleasant living atmosphere is maintained even with painted parquet.

What types of parquet lacquer are there?

Whereas parquet varnish used to have the reputation of being highly solvent-containing and therefore harmful to health and the environment, this is no longer the case today with parquet sealants not anymore.

Most modern parquet lacquers are water-based with a very low solvent content of up to 15%.

The term water-based paint refers to the high water content of around 55 to 70 % in which the paint components are dissolved.

Water-based parquet varnish means, however, that the varnish is water-soluble or that the parquet sealant reacts more sensitively to water.

Water varnishes are also particularly recommended because they are easy to process and apply and also have a very high resistance to abrasion and chemicals.

According to the composition and protection intensity, the water-based parquet lacquers as follows:

1-component parquet lacquer

Conventional 1-component parquet lacquer usually consists of plastic (acrylate) or synthetic resin dispersion. The 1K parquet sealant offers the floor a solid basic protection. However, acrylates can become brittle and, especially in places exposed to strong light or permanent water exposure, they can flake off or crack after a few years.

2-component parquet lacquer

Parquet varnish of the 2-component sealing is additionally enriched with a so-called hardening component before application, which reacts chemically with the varnish. By curing the two components, the parquet sealant becomes considerably more resistant and more robust against abrasion or scratches. However, 2K lacquer not only offers higher quality protection, but also hardens more quickly, which means that the parquet can be walked on earlier.

3-component parquet lacquer

In addition to parquet varnish and hardness components, a 3-component parquet sealant also contains additional UV protection, which protects the parquet from UVA radiation – similar to the principle of a sun cream. This prevents the parquet from yellowing or darkening excessively, which is why 3K Parquet Varnish is particularly recommended for light floors.

Alternative parquet seals

Also as 1K and 2K parquet lacquers, lacquers are polyurethane base. These are also referred to as pur or DD coatings However, seals are highly solvent-containing and lose less harmful water-based parquet lacquers. The previously widely used oil-resin parquet sealing: these too oil-based method was characterized by the high proportion of solvents have now been completely replaced by water paints.

How does parquet sealing work?

No matter which parquet lacquer is used – the sealing works for all by evaporation of the ingredients in different order.

In the case of water varnishes, first the water and then the binder evaporates, creating the paint layer. In polyurethane parquet coatings, the protective layer is formed by evaporation of the solvents and chemical reaction of the residual synthetic resins, which is sometimes associated with a biting smell that evaporates only slowly.

Shiny or matte?

Compared to oil, varnish offers a slightly different design leeway in terms of the appearance of the parquet.

Because parquet lacquer is hardly coloured, only occasionally manufacturers offer parquet lacquer in white.

However, you can vary how shiny the parquet should be: Most parquet lacquers are available in matt, silk matt or high gloss. However, if the floor is to be changed in colour, e.g. to refresh old parquet that has yellowed , the parquet must first be stained with stain or oil coloured . Only then can it be sealed with parquet lacquer.

Best parquet lacquer: This is what matters

The differences between the individual products lie in their exact composition, the intensity of protection and of course the price. Accordingly, the area of application also plays a role when it comes to buying the suitable parquet lacquer.

The cheapest variant is 1K parquet lacquer. They are easy to apply and provide adequate protection for low-stress parquet against damage. However, they are limited in their service life and are therefore not particularly suitable for rooms with high stress, exposure to water or solar radiation.

Due to the faster hardening and higher resistance to scratches, 2K parquet lacquers are optimally suited for hardwood flooring subject to average wear and tear, such as in living rooms.

The higher costs are compensated for by the longer service life and better protection.

For rooms with high solar radiation and heavy use as well as for stairs, high-quality stair and parquet lacquer on a 3-component basis should be used. Although this is relatively expensive, it not only protects the parquet from yellowing or darkening, but also constantly withstands the constant loads, e.g. from climbing stairs.

Buy parquet lacquer – Manufacturer at a glance

Well-known manufacturers of parquet lacquers, which are also used in various tests with a good price-performance ratio, are Such as:

  • Bona
  • Highlight
  • Remmers
  • Wilckens
  • Renovo
  • Loba
  • Pallmann
  • Baufix
  • Zweihorn
  • Brillux
  • u. from above

How much parquet varnish is required for the sealing depends on the parquet or wood species in question.

More varnish must be applied for parquet made of raw wood than on a floor with a primer.

Even hard wood types require less parquet lacquer than soft wood, as it sucks more strongly.

In principle, a guideline value of approx. 1.2 litres of parquet lacquer for 10 m2 parquet per lacquer layer applies. However, in order to ensure optimum protection, the parquet varnish should not only be applied once, but ideally three times.

It should be noted that the parquet lacquer represents only a small part of the total cost of the parquet sealing.

The major part of the price for parquet sealing – provided it is carried out by a specialist – is accounted for by the working time which is incurred due to the necessary sanding of the parquet.

Saving on parquet varnish therefore makes relatively little sense – above all, because products of lower quality increase the risk that the protective layer will wear out or be worn out more quickly, making it necessary to apply a new parquet sealant earlier.

Parquet painting: step by step

In the course of a renovation, a new layer of parquet varnish will bring out the full splendour of the wooden floor. It may also be necessary to apply parquet varnish when laying a new floor. It is essential to ensure that the parquet adhesive is fully cured beforehand.

Varnishing hardwood flooring is certainly a demanding task, but with a little practice and skill it can also be carried out by do-it-yourselfers themselves.

For an optimal result of the parquet sealing, following instructions should be followed.

Preparation: Grinding and cleaning the parquet

Before the parquet can be repainted, it must be completely sanded.

Prior to this, furniture and skirting boards must be removed from the room so that the entire surface can be worked on unhindered.

When sanding the parquet, care must be taken to ensure a uniform and careful procedure – the surface should be sanded down to the raw wood. Smaller dents can be repaired with parquet joint filler or with a parquet repair kit.

Then the fine dust that has accumulated must be thoroughly removed from all surfaces – preferably with a vacuum cleaner or broom.

The parquet must be completely free of dust particles.

The sanding dust can, however, be used to repair scratches or joints in the hardwood flooring: To do this, simply mix the dust with joint cement to a mushy mass, fill in any damage, allow to dry and then treat with a sanding machine or sandpaper until no more joint cement is visible.

2. Apply the primer

A parquet primer must first be applied to the sanded raw wood.

For this purpose, the parquet lacquer is carefully stirred and applied uniformly and systematically with a roll on the parquet.

When applying the parquet lacquer, direct sunlight should generally be avoided and the room temperature should be between 18 and 25 degrees.

In order not to obstruct the work process, it is best to start in the rear part of the room opposite the exit and work in even sections of about 2 m to the door.

In order to create a smooth and even coating layer, the primer is distributed once against the laying direction on the parquet and the same section without additional absorption of parquet varnish is coated again in the direction of the boards (so-called “finishing”) .

The individual sections should overlap slightly. Beware of lug marks when starting and stopping the roll!

If the entire floor surface is painted, the primer must first dry for about 2 to 3 hours. Now you can start applying the paint layers.

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3. Apply parquet varnish in several layers

The procedure is the same as the one used in the primer. When applying the paint, it should be done quickly so that the paint cannot dry too quickly.

Two coats of lacquer are sufficient for hardwood flooring subjected to average wear and tear, while for more heavily used areas three coats of parquet lacquer should be applied to provide additional protection. The parquet should also be sanded before each subsequent coat of lacquer if it has been dried for more than 24 hours. On this point, however, the manufacturer’s instructions must be observed and are binding for every seal.

When can the furniture be repositioned after painting the parquet?

After a drying phase of the parquet varnish of approx. 8 hours, the floor can be walked on again, furniture can be set up after 24 hours. The parquet lacquer is completely hardened after approx. one week – solid furniture or carpets should therefore be waited until then. You should wait up to 14 days before applying carpets or office chair pads.

The abrasion group plays an important role in the search for the right floor tiles. This is because it shows how well the product can withstand daily stress. In the following article you will find out into which abrasion classes tiles are classified and for which areas they are therefore suitable.

Whether in private living areas, for commercial use or outdoors – tiles are generally regarded as extremely robust and hard-wearing. Provided, of course, that they are actually able to cope with the daily stress in the respective area. The decisive criterion in this context is how much abrasion tiles produce – and there are sometimes quite big differences.

Glazed vs. unglazed tiles: Abrasion depends on the surface

Unglazed tiles are usually indestructible even under the highest stress and strain. The special manufacturing process makes the material as hard as diamonds and therefore resistant to surface damage and wear. In addition, unglazed tiles also score points in terms of slip resistance due to their rough surface. This means that they can be used in any area and in all rooms without any restrictions, without having to pay particular attention to slip resistance or abrasion resistance.

In contrast, abrasion is much more relevant for glazed tiles. The glaze makes the surface much more sensitive to external influences. This can not only lead to reduced slip resistance in wet or damp conditions, but over time also to wear and tear. These traces of use are often visible in the form of a loss of shine in the affected areas, particularly in the case of scratching dirt and grinding or rubbing movements when walking on the floor with shoes. And this in turn sometimes leads to limitations in the possible areas of application. Not least for this reason, ceramic glazed tiles are also assigned to an abrasion group according to DIN EN 10545-7.

Quality criterion abrasion class: Tiles in endurance test

In order to be able to assess the resistance of the surface to wear and tear, glazed tiles are therefore tested for their resistance to abrasion in a standardised test procedure. A machine produces artificial abrasion by rotating steel brushes with the addition of water and abrasives until the surface of the tiles visibly changes. Depending on how many rotations this is the case, the tiles are divided into abrasion groups 1 to 5 according to DIN EN 10545-7.

Which abrasion group tiles should have

The abrasion of glazed tiles depends both on the glaze itself (hardness, thickness, degree of gloss, etc.) and on the frequency of foot traffic, the degree of soiling and the type and intensity of use in the area in question.

All these factors are also taken into account in the abrasion class, which is why it is a decisive quality and selection criterion for tiles. In order to find out whether the tiles are suitable for the planned location, it is therefore worthwhile to pay attention to these classes when buying. The following overview shows what the respective tile abrasion class means in detail.

Abrasion groups at a glance

Abrasion group 1:

Tiles in this class are only suitable for very light use. The surface rubs off quickly and is extremely sensitive to scratching dirt. The recommended use for these tiles is in principle as wall covering. As floor coverings, they are only suitable – if at all – for rooms that are mainly walked on barefoot or only with very soft soles, such as slippers, when there is little foot traffic (for example bedrooms or bathrooms). Due to their low resistance and limited application, however, tiles of abrasion group 1 are generally only rarely offered by the tile manufacturers.

Abrasion group 2:

Group 2 tiles are already somewhat more robust: they can be used for rooms with light traffic. The surface resists minor scratching dirt and is therefore basically resistant enough to walk on with normal footwear. However, the inspection frequency should not be too high. Tiles of this abrasive group are therefore suitable for private living spaces, with the exception of heavily frequented and stressed areas, such as kitchens or stairs.

Abrasion group 3:

Class 3 tiles are most commonly found in private homes. They withstand medium loads well and are therefore suitable for most rooms with average foot traffic and dirt (e.g. living rooms, hallways, corridors). If the tiles are in principle approved for outdoor use, they can also be laid on balconies. Tiles of the abrasion group 3 can also be used in hotel rooms.

Abrasion group 4:

For rooms that are frequently entered with normal footwear or that are exposed to heavier loads, tiles in abrasion group 4 are recommended. they remain resistant to abrasion even under heavy loads and score points for their correspondingly long service life. Not only can they be used without restriction in the entire private living area, both inside and outside, but they are also resilient enough for public or commercial use. Tiles of this class are suitable for stairs, kitchens, terraces, offices, hotels, entrance areas etc.

Abrasion group 5:

Class 5 tiles are mainly used in commercial areas. They have maximum durability and abrasion resistance, which is why they are convincing even under the highest loads, foot traffic and dirt. Tiles of Abrasion Group 5 are mainly relevant for shops, restaurants and hotel lobbies, but also for garages, industrial halls, schools or railway stations. Such robust tiles are generally not necessary for private households.

For the sake of completeness, however, it should be mentioned again here that unglazed tiles can always be assigned to the highest abrasion class by default. Especially for highly frequented areas they are therefore sometimes the better choice. Particularly in the case of extreme stress, it is therefore advisable to rely on the material, which is by nature extremely abrasion-resistant.

Attention: Do not forget the anti-slip protection!

To ensure that tiles not only optimally withstand loads but also have the necessary slip resistance, attention should be paid to the anti-slip class of the tiles in addition to the abrasion group when selecting the tiles. This is particularly important for use in bathrooms, showers or outdoors. This is because the glaze of the tiles often tends to turn into a slide when wet or damp.

The classification of the slip resistance R9 to R13 shows the coefficient of static friction of glazed tiles and the angle of inclination up to which the surface can be walked on without risk. The suffix A, B or C also indicates how non-slip the tiles are in wet areas where bare feet are present (e.g. bathrooms, showers, swimming pools, etc.)

Extra tips against abrasion

The selection of the appropriate abrasive group already has a significant influence on the service life of glazed tiles. However, to ensure that the tiled floor remains free of visible signs of use for a longer period of time, the colour or brightness of the tiles should also be adapted to the use. For example, it is advisable not to use tiles that are too dark in areas subject to heavy traffic, as any changes in colour and gloss will be more noticeable on them. In addition, you should always use a chair pad under desks, for example.

Furthermore, it is of course important to clean the tiles regularly and properly. Due to the pressure and friction when walking on the floor, dirt and dust particles otherwise have a similar effect to sandpaper – and sooner or later this can have undesirable effects on the appearance of the tiles.

In areas with particularly heavy traffic, dirt-trapping mats or doormats can also be laid out to remove the coarsest dirt from street shoes and thus additionally protect the tiles.

While slip-resistant tiles are mandatory in public and commercial areas, there is no obligation whatsoever for the private sector. However, why you should also pay attention to the slip resistance of your tiles in your own four walls and how you can ensure the necessary slip resistance, you will find out in the following article.

Watch out, danger of slipping!

Universally applicable and hard-wearing, yet at the same time visually appealing and easy to clean: a floor covering made of tiles offers many undisputed advantages. If it weren’t for this small but sometimes momentous downer.

Tiles can quickly become quite smooth in wet or damp conditions. This is because water, grease and dirt significantly reduce the static friction coefficient of the surface. Especially in the bathroom, around the pool, on the terrace or even in the kitchen, one wrong step is often enough to lose your footing.

This is not only annoying, but above all can be dangerous. According to accident statistics, insufficiently slip-resistant floors are one of the most frequent causes of falls and injuries. A good reason, therefore, to attach importance to sufficient safety in areas with increased risk of slipping.

Non-slip tile: That’s what counts

Although slip-resistant tiles are not a must in the private sector, they are the best prevention against accidents. It is therefore best to pay attention to the slip resistance of tiles as early as the planning and purchasing decision.

Material and format

The material or the structure of the surface already gives a first visible hint. In general, the rule is: the rougher a tile is, the higher the slip resistance. For example, untreated natural stone or porcelain stoneware tiles are inherently relatively slip-resistant, while glazed, impregnated or high-gloss polished tiles are generally less able to meet the requirements.

The size of the tiles also has an influence on slip resistance: with smaller formats, the proportion of joints on the floor surface is higher – and this also has a positive effect on slip resistance. This is one of the reasons why mosaic tiles are often used, especially in areas with an increased amount of water (e.g. showers or swimming pools), as the many joints give the floor a kind of braking effect.

Anti-slip classes according to DIN standard

However, it is not possible to determine at a glance how slip-resistant the tile actually is. Much more decisive is therefore the marking based on standardised slip resistance classes. However, these have nothing in common with the tile abrasion group.

Although these are primarily important for compliance with the legal requirements for non-slip tiles in the commercial or public sector, they naturally also offer private consumers a reliable guide to help them choose the right tiles.

Assessment of slip resistance: Tiles in test procedure

As with any other floor covering, the assessment of the slip resistance of tiles is carried out according to a special procedure: the so-called walk on sloping ground. In order to determine the static friction coefficient of the tiles, an expert test person from the tile manufacturer walks back and forth on the surface to be tested, whereby the angle of inclination of the tile is increased more and more by lifting it to one side. Depending on the commercial sector in which the floor covering is to be used, the test is carried out either with footwear on oil or barefoot on water, in order to simulate as real a use as possible. As soon as the test person begins to slip or become unsteady on the prepared surface, the test ends.

Classification according to evaluation groups

Based on these results, slip-resistant tiles are now assigned to the corresponding evaluation groups R9 to R13 according to DIN standard 51130 as follows

Class R9:

low coefficient of static friction, safe to step on at an angle of inclination of 6 – 10°, suitable for e.g. living rooms, interior stairs, entrance areas etc.

Class R10:

normal coefficient of static friction, safe to step on at an angle of inclination of 11 – 19°, suitable for e.g. outdoor stairs or tiles in outdoor areas, bathrooms, balconies / terraces etc.

Class R11:

increased coefficient of static friction, safe to step on at an angle of inclination of 20 – 27°; suitable for e.g. outdoor installations,

Class R12:

high coefficient of static friction, safe to step on at an angle of inclination of 28 – 35°, suitable for e.g. cold stores, hospitals, canteen kitchens

Class R13:

very high coefficient of static friction, safe to step on at an angle of inclination of over 35°, suitable for e.g. workshops, slaughterhouses, production halls etc.

If the floor covering is also suitable for use in so-called wet barefoot areas according to DIN 51097, an additional value is added to the tiles:

Class A:

very low slip resistance, slip resistance up to an angle of inclination of 12°, suitable for dry to maximum wet floors

Class B:

medium slip resistance, slip resistance up to an angle of inclination of 18°, suitable for wet floors

Class C:

high slip resistance, sure-footed up to an angle of inclination of 24°, suitable for swimming pools

What slip resistance tiles need in private homes

Depending on the slip class to which tiles are assigned, this results in the possible areas of application. However, it must always be kept in mind that the evaluation groups apply primarily in the commercial sector – and there the requirements for tile slip resistance are much higher than in private use. In addition, with tiles of higher slip-resistance classes, the cleaning effort also increases because the surface is rougher. The motto with regard to surefootedness at home is therefore: less is often more.

For normal domestic use, therefore, tiles of the R9 and R10 rating groups are usually laid. Even their “low” to “normal” coefficient of static friction usually meets the requirements for adequate slip resistance completely without the floor covering losing its attractiveness and comfort.

In sanitary rooms or outdoor areas, a higher degree of slip resistance can be achieved, if required, by using rating groups “B” or “C” and with tiles R10 and R11. Especially if people often walk barefoot there, this can of course be highly recommended. Class R12 and R13 tiles, on the other hand, are basically designed for special, mostly industrial areas and are therefore no longer relevant for private use.

Making smooth tiles non-slip

Ideally, the slip resistance is therefore already taken into account during the planning or laying phase. But even if it only turns out afterwards that certain areas are too slippery, this does not necessarily mean that the leg is broken. After all, even in retrospect there are various methods of improving slip resistance:

  • A simple but very effective option are self-adhesive anti-slip strips. These are simply stuck onto the smooth areas at specific points and thus provide more grip. They are particularly suitable for stair steps, but can also be used in wet areas.
  • In order to increase the slip resistance on larger surfaces, adhesive coverings and foils are suitable, which can also be applied relatively easily.
  • In addition, there are special anti-slip coatings or varnishes with which the entire surface can be provided.
  • Another possibility is to treat the tiles mechanically (e.g. by sandblasting or compressed air technology), chemically (e.g. fluorine, chlorine or ammonium compounds) or with laser technology and thereby additionally roughen the surface.

Joints in parquet are nothing out of the ordinary and usually there is neither inferior material quality nor poorly executed laying work behind them. Nevertheless, parquet joints are often perceived as annoying. In the following article you can read why parquet joints are not bad in themselves and what you can use to fill joints in your parquet .

Recommended products for closing joints in hardwood flooring:

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What creates joints in the parquet?

The main cause of joints in the parquet is the natural swelling and shrinkage behaviour of the natural floor covering. Wood is a natural product that has hygroscopic properties.

This means, it binds water vapour from the air and releases it again, which changes both the wood moisture and the volume of the material depending on the room climate.

This behavior is called swelling and shrinkage – or colloquially formulated: The wood works.

The optimal conditions for parquet are at a room temperature of 20 to 22°C and a relative humidity of 55 to 60%.

In this indoor climate, professionally laid parquet hardly works and therefore has no joints.

Even if the annual average values are maintained, it is still inevitable that they will be exceeded in summer and undercut in winter. Because parquet always adapts to the ambient climate. The bonding of parquet with parquet adhesive can help a little. This somewhat reduces the swelling and shrinkage behaviour.

Especially during the heating period, the air in heated rooms becomes drier, the moisture in the wood decreases, the parquet disappears and joints are created.

How pronounced these can be depends, among other things, on the type of laying: floating parquet works more strongly than glued parquet because the parquet panels only lie loosely on top of each other, whereas with full-surface gluing they are firmly connected to the subfloor.

However, the type of wood and the type of parquet also play a role: parquet made of beech or maple tends to have a higher swelling and shrinking behaviour than, for example, oak.

Are joints in the parquet a deficiency?

In general, joints in the parquet are quite their purpose in view of the inevitable source and shrinkage of the wood.

They give the parquet the necessary room for expansion without damaging the floor. However, a distinction must be made between intended and unintended joints.

By intentional joints are to be understood those joints, which were deliberately placed in order to achieve an optimal result in the laying of the parquet.

For example, when laying parquet in the edge areas or wherever the floor is applied to immovable elements such as doors, stair connections, heating pipes or heavy furniture, appropriate expansion joints must be taken into account in order to compensate for tensions of the parquet .

However, if joints occur between the individual parquet elements, these are often not wanted.

Nevertheless, these can hardly be completely avoided – especially with solid parquet there will always be fugue formation.

Accordingly, joints with a width of between 0.1 and 0.5 mm (for parquet on underfloor heating systems up to 0.8 mm) are considered perfectly normal.

If the joint width is between 0.5 and 1 mm, this can be considered a conspicuity, joints over 1 mm are ultimately outside the tolerance range.

However, it is always necessary to take into account the circumstances in which the joints occurred.

In most cases, a expert is consulted in these cases, who clarifies in an expert opinion whether the exceeding of the tolerance limit was caused by the laying work or by other influencing factors, such as lack of measures to control or regulate the air humidity or incorrect heating and ventilation behaviour.

The dimensional tolerances are regulated in the standards ATV DIN 18356 Parquet work and DIN 18202 Tolerances in building construction.

Should parquet joints be filled?

While expansion joints in the edge areas usually disappear behind skirting boards, joints remain visible on the surface of the parquet.

Older parquet, in particular, often has relatively large joints, which is due on the one hand to the previously usual laying distances and on the other hand to the factor time.

However, even relatively newly laid parquet can, for the reasons mentioned above, lead to more joints, especially in winter.

These can not only negatively affect the appearance of the parquet, but sometimes develop into dirt traps that are difficult to clean or – with the appropriate width – to annoying stumbling blocks.

It is therefore perfectly sensible to repair and fill parquet joints. If there are only small dents or scratches in the parquet, these can be repaired with a parquet repair set and melting wax.

Which parquet joint fillers are available?

For filling joints in the parquet floor, there are basically different options that are used depending on the joint width to be able to.

Fugue kitt for parquet

For narrow joints, fugue kit is a proven option. This can also be easily made from wood glue and sawdust itself by mixing both components into a tough mass.

The paste is then applied to the joints with a spatula and, after complete drying, sanded down with a sanding machine or sandpaper and resealed.

It is optimal if the joints are repaired within the scope of the parquet renovation.

The grinding dust caused by the grinding process is excellently suited for the production of joint putty and also has the same colour as the parquet.

Alternatively, special joint fillers in different colours can be purchased from specialist retailers. For example, joints can also be deliberately filled in a contrasting colour to give the parquet a new look.

As joint filler is relatively liquid, it is in principle only recommended for joints up to a maximum width of 5 mm, as it can otherwise run out of the joints.

Acrylic-based joint fillers

If wider joints are to be repaired, special acrylic-based joint fillers are the better choice. These are also available in different colour variants and remain permanently elastic even after filling the joints.

This preserves the necessary flexibility so that the parquet can continue to work.

In principle, these properties also apply to silicone. Acrylic joint fillers are still preferred.

This is because, in contrast to silicone joint sealing compound, acrylic joint sealing compound can also be sanded down and painted or oiled without any problems. Due to its brittle consistency, hard or melting wax is also recommended only for removing defects in hardwood flooring and not for filling joints.

In order to achieve an optimal result of the acrylic joint fillers, the joints should first be carefully cleaned.

In doing so, any remaining joint fillings must be removed completely and the joint must be made dust-free with a parquet vacuum cleaner.

In order to work cleanly, it is recommended to glue the edges of the joints with painter’s crepe. This gives the joints an exact closure and avoids unnecessary contamination of the parquet.

For the application of the joint filler, a cartridge press is best used, with which the joint mass is inserted into the joint up to about 1 – 2 mm via plank level, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.

If the joint filler is dry, this supernade can be cut off or sanded and the joint sealed. Care must be taken to ensure that the products used are compatible with the joint mass.

Filling joints with wooden strips

Regardless of the composition, joint fillers generally have a limited service life of around 10 years.

After that, the joints should be refilled. However, if you want to fill joints for longer, you can also repair them with wooden strips. However, this method involves significantly more work.

In the first step, the joints must be brought to the same width with a knife or planer. Afterwards, the cut and adapted wooden strips with wood glue and wooden hammer are inserted into the joint. Any supernatry is then sanded and the surface sealed.

Recommended products for closing joints in hardwood flooring:

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The full-surface gluing of parquet forms the basis for a stable and durable floor, because the fixed connection with the subfloor provides significant advantages.

However, gluing hardwood flooring involves considerable effort. What is important when gluing parquet and which parquet adhesive is the right one, you will learn in this article.

Parquet adhesive recommendations from this article:

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What are the advantages of sticking parquet?

In recent years, the parquet floor seems to have lost some of its importance.

Because many house and apartment owners prefer the floating installation of modern pre-finished parquet, which is faster and less complicated and also usually more cost-effective.

However, if you want to benefit from the advantages of a high-quality and stable floor in the long term, you should still stick the parquet.

Because the gluing of parquet has some decisive advantages:

Due to the fixed connection, parquet adheres firmly to the subfloor for decades, which also makes it easier to sand down and renovate more than once.

Furthermore, glued parquet is also quieter:

impact sound and other noises when using the floor are transmitted less.

Another decisive advantage over floating installation is particularly relevant for parquet on underfloor heating systems:

the gluing process does not create air cushions between the parquet and the subfloor, which improves the thermal conductivity It should be noted, however, that glued parquet cannot be removed so easily if the floor is to be replaced at some point.

What parquet adhesives are there?

The right parquet adhesive is of course decisive for an optimum result when laying glued parquet.

Not every glue is equally suitable for every type of parquet. When purchasing the parquet adhesive, therefore, it is first and foremost important to ensure that the product is matched to both the substrate and the parquet floor to be used.

Manufacturer’s instructions and installation instructions provide important information about this and should therefore be closely monitored.

Due to the continuous development of the adhesive industry, parquet adhesives have improved in recent years.

Most of the products available in specialist shops have not only become more user-friendly in handling and higher quality in terms of adhesion, but also pass the eco-test .

While until a few years ago the proportion of solvents and other controversial ingredients in many parquet adhesives was still very high, there are now a number of ecological products that are equally harmless to humans and the environment.

Well-known manufacturers of parquet adhesives, who are also test winners in various independent product comparisons, are, for example:

  • Retol
  • Ponal
  • Brücol
  • Wakol
  • Sika
  • Stauf
  • Haro
  • Uzin
  • Ardex
  • Schönox
  • Bona
  • Bostik
  • Thomsit
  • u. from above

In general, a distinction can be made between the following parquet adhesives Be:

Silane-based adhesives

The most modern type of parquet adhesives are hybrid adhesives made of MS polymer (modified silane). They are free of solvents, water and isocyanate and are also weather and UV resistant.

This is why they are becoming more and more important and are increasingly replacing solvent adhesives, which are now banned. Silane parquet adhesives are distinguished above all by the fact that they remain permanently elastic after curing and offer the parquet a corresponding scope for swelling and shrinkage. This is why MS parquet adhesives are also universally applicable and suitable for gluing almost all parquet types as well as for use on underfloor heating systems.

Reaction resin adhesives

Reaction resin adhesives also belong to the universally applicable parquet adhesives. These are available both as 1-component PUR adhesives and as 2-component PUR adhesives. While 1-component parquet adhesives remain elastic after curing and are therefore also suitable for bonding stress-bearing parquet, 2-component PUR adhesives cure inelastically and are therefore mainly recommended for shear-resistant parquet laying.

Dispersion adhesives

Dispersion parquet adhesives are also still widely used – especially for the shear-resistant bonding of solid parquet, as they do not give the floor any more room to move after curing. They are mainly water-based and use little or no solvents. However, dispersion adhesives are not quite so easy to use. When laying the parquet, for example, a certain time window must be observed in which the adhesive shows its optimum adhesive properties. It should also be noted that the water content in the adhesive may possibly lead to increased swelling of the parquet.

Powder adhesives

These parquet adhesives consisting of plastic powder or plaster or cement as well as various fillers are also solvent-free adhesives. The powder to be mixed with water is suitable for the laying of low-stress parquet types such as mosaic or multi-layer finished parquet.

Parquet glue with solvents

In addition to the above-mentioned modern parquet adhesives without solvents, there are also some solvent-based products on the market. However, these should – if at all – only be used in individual exceptional cases. In principle, the use of such parquet adhesives is not recommended.

Beware of old parquet adhesives!

Particular care should be taken with older parquet, as the parquet adhesives used at the time may contain harmful ingredients.

Until the 1970s, for example, black parquet adhesive made of coal tar was frequently used , which can contain demonstrably carcinogenic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Parquet glued in this way can be dangerous, for example because of a defective sealant:

Because the harmful substances contained therein, such as benzo(a)pyrene, enter the room air via fine cracks in the parquet surface and bind to dust.

However, it is not immediately necessary to remove the floor if there is black glue under the parquet.

However, regular and careful inspection of the parquet surface and a dust test should be carried out to prevent the release of the substance.

However, if you want to be on the safe side, not only must the parquet be completely removed, but also the screed underneath must be chiseled out completely, since abrasive of the black adhesive is not possible due to the dust formation.

In addition to PAH and PCBs, old parquet adhesives may also contain asbestos, which can be released, in particular by demolition or grinding work. Renovation of hardwood flooring with asbestos-containing adhesive should therefore only be carried out by specialist companies, which have been trained accordingly in handling harmful substances.

Gluing parquet: That’s what matters

The basic requirements for gluing parquet are a dry, clean and even substrate as well as optimum room conditions with a temperature of at least 16°C and 40 to 60% humidity.

Before actually starting to glue the parquet, the first three rows of the parquet should first be fitted without parquet adhesive.

In this way, the individual elements can be cut to size and any changes made to the direction of installation.

It is also advisable to become familiar with the application of the parquet adhesive before on a chipboard. In principle, modern parquet adhesives are easy to apply, but handling the putty requires a little practice.

When the parquet is bonded, step by step should be taken.

Since most parquet adhesives have a certain processing time (usually about 30 minutes) in which they have the optimum adhesive strength, only the section should be coated with adhesive on which parquet can also be laid during this time.

Otherwise, there is a risk that the adhesive will decrease and the parquet adhesive will have to be removed again.

What is the best way to apply parquet adhesive?

The parquet adhesive is applied fully and evenly to the respective floor section.

Applying the parquet adhesive works best with a serrated trowel with triangular teeth. Which serration the trowel should have depends on the type of parquet adhesive and the parquet to be laid.

The required thickness of the parquet adhesive and the recommended trowel notch size is normally indicated in the adhesive application instructions.

In addition, there are also generally valid recommendations as to which tooth fillers should be used for the different types of parquet.

These are as follows:

B3: Mosaic parquet, 8 mm parquet

B5: 2-layer parquet up to 60 cm length, Lamparkett

B9: Finished parquet, 10-mm parquet, multi-layer parquet

B11: strip parquet up to 120 cm long, multi-layer parquet up to 60 cm long

B12: Boarded parquet, planks up to 60 cm, multi-layer parquet over 60 cm long

B15: Wooden paving, solid floorboards from 120 cm length and 12 cm width

How much parquet glue is needed?

To calculate the consumption of parquet adhesive, the common recommendation is to calculate with 1.2 kg per square metre.

However, the exact consumption can vary considerably depending on the product and type of parquet – therefore, the manufacturer’s instructions regarding the thickness of the parquet adhesive to be applied should be checked before purchase.

A further calculation basis is to multiply the order quantity of the tooth filler by the number of square meters of the parquet to be laid.

How much do parquet adhesives cost?

Actual costs for the calculated amount of parquet adhesive also depend on the respective product. For example, low-cost dispersion adhesives are available for as low as 3.50 euros per kilo, synthetic resin adhesives cost an average of around 7 euros per kilo, while high-quality parquet adhesives made of reaction resin cost more than 10 euros per kilo.

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Remove parquet glue

If parquet is laid glued, sooner or later it is also the removal of the parquet adhesive. How much effort is involved depends on the parquet adhesive used and the type of parquet.

In order to remove smaller adhesive residues from the freshly laid parquet, simple cleaning cloths with a small amount of solvents are usually sufficient.

Alternatively, the residues – possibly previously warmed with a hair dryer – can also be treated with conventional cooking oil.

Furniture polish, erasers made of natural rubber or pure orange oil can also help, as can special adhesive removers, brake cleaners, acetone or spirits.

Larger quantities of parquet adhesivecan to be sanded with a grinding machine. It is important to remove the excess parquet adhesive as soon as possible during installation, because after a maximum of 12 hours most adhesives are completely cured.

However, if full-surface adhesive residues are to be removed after the removal of glued parquet, the procedure is much more complex.

If parquet is arched or swollen, excessive moisture is often the reason.

While superficial water damage can be detected quickly and easily, the cause can also be hidden under the floor. In this article you will learn what causes excessive moisture under the parquet and how to proceed in case of water damage.

How does parquet react to moisture?

As a natural wooden floor, parquet always reacts to water.

What is of great advantage in terms of indoor climate and feel-good atmosphere on the one hand can lead to damage in the parquet floor on the other hand.

Too high humidity leads to an increased swelling behavior of the parquet – unsightly deformations are the result.

A different image is created depending on where the water comes from:

  • Moisture spreads from below, parquet forms convex – it swells up and the middle of the rods curves upwards or comes up.
  • If moisture enters from above, the deformations are concave – the so-called “bowl” occurs, the parquet deforms like a bowl, with the edges facing upwards.

Causes of water damage in the parquet

Water damage in the parquet can have many causes. While a fallen water bucket or a room flooded by an leaking washing machine is quickly discovered, there are a number of water damage that is not so obvious.

Thus, the damage is often not noticed until the parquet is swelled or curves. Then it is said to get to the bottom of the matter quickly in order to limit the damage as much as possible.

There are the following options:

Too moist screed

If it is a new building, the parquet may have been on a screed that was too damp.

In order for a newly erected screed to be suitable for laying parquet, it must be completely dry.

As a guideline, a drying time of approx. one week per cm of screed – a classic cement screed is therefore usually sufficiently dried after about 4 weeks. In order to be certain, a residual moisture determination must be carried out using the CM method before laying the hardwood flooring, which determines exactly whether the values are within the approved standard.

Defective water pipes or heating pipes

If there are water or heating pipes – for example from a underfloor heating system – under the hardwood flooring, the water damage may also have been caused by a leak in these pipes. In this case, moisture penetrates into the parquet from below, but this can go unnoticed for a while.

Too high humidity

Particularly with floating parquet laid , bulging can also be caused by excessive humidity. If, in addition, too little space has been left around the edges or at door thresholds to give the parquet the necessary room to swell and shrink, it will mainly come up at the joints.

Water damage in the parquet – what to do?

No matter what the cause is – in case of water damage in the parquet, the motto applies:

The quicker the damage is repaired, the smaller are the consequences and the more likely it is that the parquet can be repaired.

As soon as a water damage has been detected in the parquet, the therefore be acted upon as soon as possible. In this way, it is not only avoid irreparable damage, but it also prevents mold formation, which could sometimes spread to the entire floor construction.

Parquet has the great advantage that it can be easily repaired in most cases with slight to moderate water damage.

A real wood floor is completely destroyed only if the water is on the floor for a long time or the parquet elements in it “float”.

In contrast to other floor coverings, such as laminate, parquet can therefore usually be easily renovated – even the repair of individual damaged areas is possible.

The cost of repairing or remediation measures depends accordingly on the extent of the water damage.

Eliminate superficial water damage in the parquet

Water damage to the surface of the parquet is best repaired by first wiping the water as quickly as possible.

Afterwards, the parquet must dry completely.

If the floor was only in contact with the water for a short time – for example, because a bucket was spilled – it is sufficient to provide the necessary draught in the room by aeration. The affected area can then be treated with a suitable care product.

In the case of larger or longer floods – e.g. due to leaking washing machines or floods – the residual moisture from the parquet and the air must be removed over a longer period of time by a dehumidifier.

It is important to keep windows and doors closed during the entire drying phase – with the exception of impulse ventilation – windows and doors.

Suitable equipment can be rented at DIY stores or specialist companies, the costs for this are usually covered by the insurance.

In addition, in the case of major surface damage, the water may also have penetrated into the joints of the parquet and thus spread moisture under the floor.

If this risk exists, a expert or expert should definitely be consulted, who will examine the water damage in detail and plan further measures if necessary.

Repair water damage below the parquet

If the source of the water damage is below the parquet, has probably already passed some time, which is the expense of the Damage is eliminated.

The most important thing is to eliminate the cause of water ingress. To do this, it is usually necessary to remove the parquet at the affected area. Later the parquet can be fixed again with parquet adhesive.

Once the damage has been repaired, the entire underbody – especially the screed – must first completely dry up before the hole can be closed again.

The use of a drying device is also recommended for this purpose.

In addition, any existing bulk material should be removed. Only when the soil has completely dried out and there are no signs of mold formation, the affected area can be filled with new bulk material and the hole can be closed with new parquet elements.

The old hardwood flooring will probably be too damaged by the effects of water to be reused. Colour differences in the decor can be compensated for by special oils or lacquers or a new parquet sealing.

Signs of mold infestation

If a musty, fashionable or earthy smell goes out after a water damage, this is usually an indication that mold has formed under the parquet.

The extent of the infestation and the possible spread to the dwelling can be investigated by means of an appropriate expert opinion.

If mould is actually found, the parquet must be completely removed and often also the screed underneath must be renovated.

A new screed may only be introduced if the residual moisture in the room is below 4 percent – after that, the corresponding drying time must be observed before a new parquet can be laid.

Since the highest care is required in the refurbishment of parquet after a water damage with mould infestation, the measures should be carried out by a specialist.

Recommended repair sets in this article:

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Even the most robust parquet is not immune to damage.

Daily wear and tear or minor mishaps can quickly cause scratches, holes or dents in the parquet. Learn in this article how to best repair various damage in the parquet.

One of the great advantages of parquet is its durability and durability.

Nevertheless parquet is not indestructible. However, minor damage to hardwood flooring is usually relatively easy to repair without having to renovate the entire floor. How best to repair defects in hardwood flooring, depends on the type of damage.

Remove scratches in the parquet

Scratches in hardwood flooring are only an optical defect with waxed or oiled floors.

With lacquered parquet, on the other hand, the damaged surface sealant can cause damage in the long term if dirt or moisture penetrates under the protective layer.

To eliminate scratches in the parquet, there are various possibilities that achieve very good results depending on the depth of the scratches.

Superficial scratches or sanding marks in the parquet can be removed in most cases by polishing.

This method works for oiled or waxed parquet as well as for painted parquet.

For this purpose, furniture polish or repair wax or oil is applied to a soft, lint-free cloth and the scratch is rubbed in until it has disappeared.

However, it is important to note the material compatibility with the parquet, as the damaged areas can otherwise discolor when the agent penetrates into the wood.

Especially with painted parquet, the damaged area can also be easily sanded and then provided with a new layer of diluted lacquer. However, it will hardly be possible to repair the paint without transitions, which can be seen more or less depending on the light incidence.

Even with a walnut slight scratches in the parquet can be treated well. By rubbing the nut kernel into the surface, the scratch does not disappear completely, but it becomes much less visible. Suitable parquet maintenance also helps against small scratches in the floor.

In addition, there are also special Retouching pins in different colours, with which the scratches in the parquet can be concealed.

Repairing deep scratches and holes in the parquet

Major damage in the parquet, such as deep scratches or holes, can be easily filled with wooden putty.

To do this, the parquet must first be thoroughly cleaned with a parquet vacuum cleaner and a damp cloth.

In particular, the damaged site must be clean and completely dry before repair can begin. Subsequently, the wood putty is mixed accordingly, applied to the scratch or hole with a plastic spatula in several layers and smooth coated.

For an optimal colour result, sawdust matched to the parquet floor can be added to the wood putty. Once the wood putty is completely dried – the drying time is between 12 and 24 hours, depending on the product – the repaired area is sanded with sandpaper until the surface is as much as possible aligned with the rest of the parquet.

Eliminate damage in the parquet with repair kit

For deeper scratches, cracks or holes in the parquet, special parquet repair kits are also a good alternative.

These are available in different versions and price categories in DIY stores or specialist retailers.

The most significant difference with repair sets is the melting wax contained in them.

While the cheaper variants usually contain relatively soft melting wax, which deforms even at low temperatures – such as sunlight – , more expensive repair kits contain high-quality hard wax and are also available in numerous colour shades.

For such a professional parquet repair set, you can expect costs of about 100,- Euro. An investment that is, however, definitely worthwhile in view of the result.

To repair the damage in the parquet, the hard wax of the parquet repair set is heated and the scratch or hole is filled with it.

In order to get as close as possible to the wood structure, hard wax should be used in various shades of colour.

With some repair kits, the wax can also be mixed with a wood paste until the colour tone corresponds as closely as possible to that of the parquet. Scratches, cracks or holes in the parquet can then be filled with this compound. However, the wax is not suitable for filling joints in hardwood flooring. This is because the material is brittle and therefore unsuitable.

Remaining wax residues can then be removed with a plastic spatula or a plastic card. Finally, the repaired area is cleaned with a dry, soft cloth and re-treated with care products suitable for the respective parquet (polish, oil, sealing varnish).

Repair kits for parquet only achieve an optimal result if the damage in the floor is deep enough.

Because only if the macke in the parquet is correspondingly large, the filling with the hard wax gets the necessary support.

If the damage is too slight, it should therefore be extended accordingly with a cutter or similar tool if a repair set is used.

Remove dents in the parquet

If the parquet has a dent, it is sometimes sufficient to moisten it.

Due to the moisture, the parquet swells slightly and the dent is removed.

With more stubborn dents, the iron can also help: Simply place a damp cloth on the appropriate place and gently slide over it with the hot iron.

Thus, the moisture from the hot water vapor can penetrate even better into the wood, the parquet expands and the dent disappears again.

However, this method requires very careful handling to prevent the parquet from swelling too much due to excessive moisture.

In addition, especially in the case of lacquered hardwood flooring, you should test in advance on an inconspicuous spot whether the lacquer can withstand the high temperatures of the iron without damage.

If the dents have been caused by water damage, the dents are Repair, however, is not so easy. In this case, the special procedures for the elimination of water damage.

Partially replace the parquet

If a damage cannot be repaired by the various repair methods, hardwood flooring also offers the possibility of replacing individual elements. To do this, the damaged parquet is either cut out with a chisel, for example, or a single plank is removed and replaced with a suitably adapted, new element.

Partial replacement of parquet is particularly advantageous if there is loose parquet, for example because the parquet adhesive has come loose or the click system is damaged.

Grinding the parquet

In the case of extensive or more serious damage, it may be necessary to sand down the parquet in the course of repair.

With the exception of untreated parquet, this is also partially possible in most cases. However, it should be borne in mind that the sanded area will always differ from the rest of the floor, as the parquet changes its color over time.

Corresponding color differences between repaired and original parquet should therefore be compensated so that the repair is as little visible as possible.

This is often possible by treating the surface with polish, oil or sealing wax. However, if this is not the case, the entire parquet floor must ultimately be sanded down. In places subject to heavy loads, e.g. in offices under the desk, you should always use a floor protection mat.

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A parquet floor is not only versatile and visually appealing, but also convinces with its durability.

The decisive criterion for the service life is what thickness the parquet has.

An overview of the commercialstrengths and the different structure of parquet floors can be found in this article.

In which thicknesses is parquet available?

The thickness of the parquet depends on which parquet type it is.

Parquet is basically available in two versions, which differ fundamentally in their structure – and thus in their actual thickness – :

Solid parquet (one-layer parquet)

The classic solid parquet (also known as single-layer parquet) consists of a continuous layer of solid wood, which is first laid in its raw state fully glued over the entire surface and only then sanded and surface-treated.

The installation of solid wood parquet is on the one hand relatively costly and time-consuming, as the floor only becomes ready for use and walkable after several work steps. On the other hand, the thickness of the solid parquet also ensures particularly high resistance and durability.

Solid parquet is available in different thicknesses between 8 and 23 mm.

Due to its thickness, it can be sanded down several times in the course of renovation work .

If one assumes that hardwood flooring is in need of renovation every 10 to 15 years due to wear and damage and that approx. 0.3 to 0.5 mm of the parquet surface is removed per grinding process, solid hardwood flooring has a service life of several decades.

The most common variants of solid parquet floors and their strengths Are:

  • strip parquet:
    14 to 23 mm, can be sanded 5 – 7 times
  • ship bottom:
    14 to 23 mm, can be sanded 5 – 7 times
  • mosaic parquet:
    8 to 10 mm, can be sanded 4 – 5 times
  • lamp parquet:
    6 to 15 mm (standard: 10 mm), can be sanded 4 – 5 times
  • panel parquet:
    approx. 10 mm (occasionally up to 20 mm), can be sanded 4 – 5 times

Prefabricated parquet (multi-layer parquet)

In contrast to the solid parquet, finished or multi-layer parquet consists of several layers glued together.

It is already ready for installation and is surface-treated with a layer sealed by oil or varnish, so that it can be walked immediately after installation.

Finished parquet is available as 2-layer or 3-layer parquet. 2-layer parquet consists of a carrier material made of wood composite panels or cheap wood, which is glued to a wear layer of high-quality real wood.

3-layer parquet contains in addition to this a counter-layer – also made of wood or wood composites – which makes the floor even more stable.

Decisive for the quality of prefabricated parquet is the useful layer:

This consists of different types of wood and should have a thickness of at least 2.5 mm.

The principle applies here:

The higher the thickness of the useful layer of the parquet, the higher the quality of the floor and the higher its service life.

The total thickness of the parquet is therefore made up of the thickness of the of the carrier material and the useful layer. Commercially available prefabricated parquet has the following common strengths:

2-layer hardwood flooring:

total thickness 10 to 16 mm, wear layer 3 to 6 mm, can be sanded 2 – 3 times

3-layer hardwood flooring:

total thickness 10 to 25 mm, wear layer 3 to 8 mm, can be sanded 2 – 4 times

Special shape: veneer parquet

Veneer parquet is considered a special form of hardwood flooring, as it combines the special features of wood and laminate floors:

Precious wood veneers with a doctored, multi-coated surface are glued with water-resistant HDF support plates.

The total thickness of veneer parquet is also between 10 and 23 mm. But veneer parquet cannot be sanded down in any other way than the classic finished parquet because the wear layer is less than 1 mm thick.

What does the parquet strength have an effect on?

Strength plays a role in the selection of the parquet in several respects:

On the one hand, the acquisition costs are usually higher for thicker parquet, on the other hand, the strength has a significant impact on the life span of the floor, which in turn makes the investment quite worthwhile.

Parquet with a higher thickness not only withstands the daily stress better, but can also be sanded more often, which is important for carrying out renovation work.

Wear or damage to the parquet can be removed relatively easily by sanding. As a guideline, parquet floors should be renovated every 10 to 15 years and approx. 0.3 to 0.5 mm of the parquet surface should be removed per sanding operation.

The strength of the parquet is also relevant in terms of spatial conditions.

Parquet floors with less thickness are advantageous, for example, in rooms that require a lower height of the overall floor construction. But even in transitions, such as at door sills, the strength of the parquet can be decisive.

In addition, the thickness of the parquet – together with the type of wood used – also has an effect on the thermal resistance at underfloor heating systems. The higher the thickness of the parquet, the more sluggishly the underfloor heating reacts and the slower the room heats up. However, other factors also play a role here, such as the parquet adhesive.

In order to be able to enjoy a beautiful and well-kept hardwood flooring for as long as possible, regular cleaning and care is essential.

For dry cleaning of hardwood flooring, vacuum cleaners are the ideal tool.

You can find out what is important for the optimal vacuum cleaner for parquet and which products are available on the market in this article.

The best vacuum cleaners for parquet (with cable):

Dry clean parquet: Vacuum cleaner vs. breviews

Parquet is robust and easy to care for – but it is still not possible without regular cleaning.

For the daily removal of superficial dirt, dry cleaning is usually sufficient. Best with a vacuum cleaner.

Because of the material condition of the parquet, dust and dirt do not stick to the surface, but lie only loosely on top.

While the dust is partly only stirred up by sweeping with a broom, in order to settle again throughout the room, dust and dirt particles are removed more thoroughly with a vacuum cleaner.

However, there are a few things to consider when using vacuum cleaners for parquet.

Best vacuum cleaner for parquet: criteria and Requirements

The range of vacuum cleaners for parquet is varied – numerous manufacturers offer a wide variety of models in all price ranges.

Among the most well-known and popular vacuum cleaner manufacturers are:

  • Dyson
  • Miele
  • Bosch
  • Siemens
  • Philips
  • Rowenta
  • Aeg
  • and many more

In order to facilitate the decision, it is advisable to to pay attention to different characteristics from the trade mark:


An essential criterion in the search for the optimal vacuum cleaner for parquet is its suction power.

On the one hand, a high suction effect reduces the time required for cleaning, as the dust is already sucked in from a greater distance and even larger dirt particles, such as stones or crumbs, disappear quickly and reliably in the vacuum cleaner.

On the other hand, a vacuum cleaner with high suction power is also more versatile and is therefore also suitable for use on tiles and carpet in addition to parquet. In addition, a vacuum cleaner with high suction power also reduces the risk of dirt getting caught in the brush and causing scratches in the hardwood flooring.

The best vacuum cleaners for parquet (without cable):

Floor nozzle

The use of a suitable nozzle is essential for a gentle suction process on parquet.

This should be geared to the texture of the parquet and have a dense, soft brush that glides easily and without loss of suction force over the parquet. Commercially available vacuum cleaners are usually equipped with a universal nozzle, in which the brush can be folded in or out depending on the floor covering.

These have the advantage that they can be used for vacuuming both parquet and tiles or carpets.

In some cases, special parquet nozzles are also available for the vacuum cleaner, which have been specially adapted to the requirements of hardwood flooring and have a soft, large-area insert (e.g. made of felt or natural hair). However, these are rarely included in the scope of delivery of the vacuum cleaner, but can be retrofitted in addition to the normal nozzle.


Most vacuum cleaners have wheels that pull them through the room. If these wheels block, e.g. by a wedged stone, scratches or scratches can occur in the parquet. Therefore, when purchasing a vacuum cleaner for parquet, attention should be paid to the quality of the wheels, axles and bearings.

Rubber wheels are gentler for the parquet and leave fewer traces than plastic wheels. In addition, the wheels should have as large a diameter as possible and be easily pulled by manoeuvrable joints.


Basically, the weight of the vacuum cleaner for parquet is rather incidental – much more important is the quality and the execution of the wheels. However, when vacuuming on multiple floors or stairs, the weight can affect ease of use.


Even the volume of the vacuum cleaner hardly affects whether the vacuum cleaner is suitable for parquet. In view of the fact that however, it makes it possible for the user to there is quite a difference in the noise he makes when vacuuming parquet exposed.

Different types of vacuum cleaners for parquet

Whether floor vacuum cleaners, hand vacuum cleaners or vacuum cleaners, whether Cable or battery, with bag or without – in principle there is for every type of vacuum cleaner Models suitable for parquet.

Vacuum cleaner

The classic among vacuum cleaners for parquet scores points with its consistently high suction force. Strong motors ensure that dust and Dirt reliably disappear. Floor vacuum cleaners are available with different technologies:

With conventional floor vacuum cleaners – such as the Bosch BGL35MON13, the Siemens VS06B1110 or the Miele S 8340 PowerLine – the dirt is sucked into a bag that needs to be replaced regularly.

In contrast, bagless cyclone vacuum cleaners – such as the Philips FC9332/09 PowerPro Compact or the Dyson Big Ball Parquet 2 – transport dust and dirt particles directly into the collecting container through air and rotation.

This eliminates follow-up costs for new vacuum cleaner bags and also reduces the loss of suction power.

Alternatively, vacuum cleaners for parquet are also available, which by the use of water filters for a dust-free exhaust air during the suction process example of this is the Kärcher DS 6.

Hand vacuum cleaner

Wireless cordless vacuum cleaners – such as the Dyson V11 absolute – rely on space-saving compactness – suction tube and motor form a unit, there is no housing that needs to be pulled behind. In addition, they can be used flexibly, as they do not need to be connected to the power supply. To the face of the battery life limited operating time and the heavier weight that is dust ing in your hand.

Suction robots

vacuum cleaners robots are particularly convenient because they vacuum the parquet floor independently. However, the purchase costs are also much higher than for conventional vacuum cleaners for hardwood flooring.

Which product is ultimately most convincing often depends on your personal preferences. Because every vacuum cleaner for parquet has its advantages and disadvantages, as can be seen from various product tests and comparisons.

Tips and tricks for vacuuming parquet

  • Choose a vacuum cleaner for parquet that best meets your requirements. If you have parquet floors and tiles or parquet and carpet in your home, the vacuum cleaner should be as universally usable as possible.
  • Use only a floor nozzle that is suitable for use on parquet.
  • When sucking parquet, be sure to fold out the brush with a universal nozzle. This way, you not only prevent scratches, but also the dust is sucked in directly and not – as would be the case with a flattened nozzle – just pushed over the ground.
  • Make sure that the nozzle does not bend and that there is no coarse dirt (e.g. stones or sand) in the brush that could scratch the parquet.
  • Check the wheels of the parquet vacuum cleaner regularly for their functionality before suction. Dirt should always be removed immediately to avoid streaks or damage in the parquet.
  • Avoid the vacuum cleaner tipping over on the parquet floor – it not only interferes with the operation, but can also lead to damage.
  • Always remove desk chair pads and carpets before vacuuming. In the peripheral areas of these, dirt often accumulates that would otherwise not be removed properly.
  • For floor vacuum cleaners that need to be plugged into the power outlet, make sure that they have a sufficiently long cable or are replugged accordingly. This not only facilitates vacuuming, but also prevents the vacuum cleaner from being pushed sideways over the parquet floor, leaving traces on the parquet floor.
  • For cordless vacuum cleaners for parquet, keep in mind that the device must be charged continuously to be ready for use at all times.