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The full-surface gluing of parquet forms the basis for a stable and durable floor, because the fixed connection with the subfloor provides significant advantages.

However, gluing hardwood flooring involves considerable effort. What is important when gluing parquet and which parquet adhesive is the right one, you will learn in this article.

Parquet adhesive recommendations from this article:

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What are the advantages of sticking parquet?

In recent years, the parquet floor seems to have lost some of its importance.

Because many house and apartment owners prefer the floating installation of modern pre-finished parquet, which is faster and less complicated and also usually more cost-effective.

However, if you want to benefit from the advantages of a high-quality and stable floor in the long term, you should still stick the parquet.

Because the gluing of parquet has some decisive advantages:

Due to the fixed connection, parquet adheres firmly to the subfloor for decades, which also makes it easier to sand down and renovate more than once.

Furthermore, glued parquet is also quieter:

impact sound and other noises when using the floor are transmitted less.

Another decisive advantage over floating installation is particularly relevant for parquet on underfloor heating systems:

the gluing process does not create air cushions between the parquet and the subfloor, which improves the thermal conductivity It should be noted, however, that glued parquet cannot be removed so easily if the floor is to be replaced at some point.

What parquet adhesives are there?

The right parquet adhesive is of course decisive for an optimum result when laying glued parquet.

Not every glue is equally suitable for every type of parquet. When purchasing the parquet adhesive, therefore, it is first and foremost important to ensure that the product is matched to both the substrate and the parquet floor to be used.

Manufacturer’s instructions and installation instructions provide important information about this and should therefore be closely monitored.

Due to the continuous development of the adhesive industry, parquet adhesives have improved in recent years.

Most of the products available in specialist shops have not only become more user-friendly in handling and higher quality in terms of adhesion, but also pass the eco-test .

While until a few years ago the proportion of solvents and other controversial ingredients in many parquet adhesives was still very high, there are now a number of ecological products that are equally harmless to humans and the environment.

Well-known manufacturers of parquet adhesives, who are also test winners in various independent product comparisons, are, for example:

  • Retol
  • Ponal
  • Brücol
  • Wakol
  • Sika
  • Stauf
  • Haro
  • Uzin
  • Ardex
  • Schönox
  • Bona
  • Bostik
  • Thomsit
  • u. from above

In general, a distinction can be made between the following parquet adhesives Be:

Silane-based adhesives

The most modern type of parquet adhesives are hybrid adhesives made of MS polymer (modified silane). They are free of solvents, water and isocyanate and are also weather and UV resistant.

This is why they are becoming more and more important and are increasingly replacing solvent adhesives, which are now banned. Silane parquet adhesives are distinguished above all by the fact that they remain permanently elastic after curing and offer the parquet a corresponding scope for swelling and shrinkage. This is why MS parquet adhesives are also universally applicable and suitable for gluing almost all parquet types as well as for use on underfloor heating systems.

Reaction resin adhesives

Reaction resin adhesives also belong to the universally applicable parquet adhesives. These are available both as 1-component PUR adhesives and as 2-component PUR adhesives. While 1-component parquet adhesives remain elastic after curing and are therefore also suitable for bonding stress-bearing parquet, 2-component PUR adhesives cure inelastically and are therefore mainly recommended for shear-resistant parquet laying.

Dispersion adhesives

Dispersion parquet adhesives are also still widely used – especially for the shear-resistant bonding of solid parquet, as they do not give the floor any more room to move after curing. They are mainly water-based and use little or no solvents. However, dispersion adhesives are not quite so easy to use. When laying the parquet, for example, a certain time window must be observed in which the adhesive shows its optimum adhesive properties. It should also be noted that the water content in the adhesive may possibly lead to increased swelling of the parquet.

Powder adhesives

These parquet adhesives consisting of plastic powder or plaster or cement as well as various fillers are also solvent-free adhesives. The powder to be mixed with water is suitable for the laying of low-stress parquet types such as mosaic or multi-layer finished parquet.

Parquet glue with solvents

In addition to the above-mentioned modern parquet adhesives without solvents, there are also some solvent-based products on the market. However, these should – if at all – only be used in individual exceptional cases. In principle, the use of such parquet adhesives is not recommended.

Beware of old parquet adhesives!

Particular care should be taken with older parquet, as the parquet adhesives used at the time may contain harmful ingredients.

Until the 1970s, for example, black parquet adhesive made of coal tar was frequently used , which can contain demonstrably carcinogenic substances such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

Parquet glued in this way can be dangerous, for example because of a defective sealant:

Because the harmful substances contained therein, such as benzo(a)pyrene, enter the room air via fine cracks in the parquet surface and bind to dust.

However, it is not immediately necessary to remove the floor if there is black glue under the parquet.

However, regular and careful inspection of the parquet surface and a dust test should be carried out to prevent the release of the substance.

However, if you want to be on the safe side, not only must the parquet be completely removed, but also the screed underneath must be chiseled out completely, since abrasive of the black adhesive is not possible due to the dust formation.

In addition to PAH and PCBs, old parquet adhesives may also contain asbestos, which can be released, in particular by demolition or grinding work. Renovation of hardwood flooring with asbestos-containing adhesive should therefore only be carried out by specialist companies, which have been trained accordingly in handling harmful substances.

Gluing parquet: That’s what matters

The basic requirements for gluing parquet are a dry, clean and even substrate as well as optimum room conditions with a temperature of at least 16°C and 40 to 60% humidity.

Before actually starting to glue the parquet, the first three rows of the parquet should first be fitted without parquet adhesive.

In this way, the individual elements can be cut to size and any changes made to the direction of installation.

It is also advisable to become familiar with the application of the parquet adhesive before on a chipboard. In principle, modern parquet adhesives are easy to apply, but handling the putty requires a little practice.

When the parquet is bonded, step by step should be taken.

Since most parquet adhesives have a certain processing time (usually about 30 minutes) in which they have the optimum adhesive strength, only the section should be coated with adhesive on which parquet can also be laid during this time.

Otherwise, there is a risk that the adhesive will decrease and the parquet adhesive will have to be removed again.

What is the best way to apply parquet adhesive?

The parquet adhesive is applied fully and evenly to the respective floor section.

Applying the parquet adhesive works best with a serrated trowel with triangular teeth. Which serration the trowel should have depends on the type of parquet adhesive and the parquet to be laid.

The required thickness of the parquet adhesive and the recommended trowel notch size is normally indicated in the adhesive application instructions.

In addition, there are also generally valid recommendations as to which tooth fillers should be used for the different types of parquet.

These are as follows:

B3: Mosaic parquet, 8 mm parquet

B5: 2-layer parquet up to 60 cm length, Lamparkett

B9: Finished parquet, 10-mm parquet, multi-layer parquet

B11: strip parquet up to 120 cm long, multi-layer parquet up to 60 cm long

B12: Boarded parquet, planks up to 60 cm, multi-layer parquet over 60 cm long

B15: Wooden paving, solid floorboards from 120 cm length and 12 cm width

How much parquet glue is needed?

To calculate the consumption of parquet adhesive, the common recommendation is to calculate with 1.2 kg per square metre.

However, the exact consumption can vary considerably depending on the product and type of parquet – therefore, the manufacturer’s instructions regarding the thickness of the parquet adhesive to be applied should be checked before purchase.

A further calculation basis is to multiply the order quantity of the tooth filler by the number of square meters of the parquet to be laid.

How much do parquet adhesives cost?

Actual costs for the calculated amount of parquet adhesive also depend on the respective product. For example, low-cost dispersion adhesives are available for as low as 3.50 euros per kilo, synthetic resin adhesives cost an average of around 7 euros per kilo, while high-quality parquet adhesives made of reaction resin cost more than 10 euros per kilo.

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Remove parquet glue

If parquet is laid glued, sooner or later it is also the removal of the parquet adhesive. How much effort is involved depends on the parquet adhesive used and the type of parquet.

In order to remove smaller adhesive residues from the freshly laid parquet, simple cleaning cloths with a small amount of solvents are usually sufficient.

Alternatively, the residues – possibly previously warmed with a hair dryer – can also be treated with conventional cooking oil.

Furniture polish, erasers made of natural rubber or pure orange oil can also help, as can special adhesive removers, brake cleaners, acetone or spirits.

Larger quantities of parquet adhesivecan to be sanded with a grinding machine. It is important to remove the excess parquet adhesive as soon as possible during installation, because after a maximum of 12 hours most adhesives are completely cured.

However, if full-surface adhesive residues are to be removed after the removal of glued parquet, the procedure is much more complex.

When a new floor is laid, additional height is usually to be expected.

For example, if a carpet flooring is removed and replaced by a hardwood flooring, the subfloor structure grows from 4 mm to 15 mm. To ensure that the doors can continue to be used, the door must be shortened.

In addition, the door frames should be trimmed to a suitable height before the laying of the wooden floor.

Instead of defacing the transition with unsightly silicone joints, the parquet can then be simply pushed under the frame (only partially recommended for click parquet).

Tool list

  • Diving circular saw
  • Fine multimaster or door trimmer
  • Fine sanding paper
  • Stechbeitel & Hammer

Adapt the door frames to the parquet

Video: How to shorten the door frame (door lining)

To find the right height for the door frame, all you need is a piece of the top covering (e.g. a single bar oak parquet).

This piece will not be used later, as it usually gets some scratches.

The parquet rod is now placed directly on the screed on the door frame.

It is important that the parquet rod is directly attached to the frame. If there is a distance between them, the saw blade likes to deviate downwards and the frame is cut off at an angle.

If you don’t have a Multimaster or similar, you can also use a Japanese saw and a little bit of hand feeling.

Once the frame has been sawn through, remove the loose parts with a chisel (“stemmeisen”) and a hammer.

One should be careful not to damage the veneer, for example.

Once the excess is removed, the parquet rod is pushed under the frame for a sample. If everything fits, it goes to the next frame.

Machines for shortening the door frame (door lining)

Shorten the door: Bring the door leaf to parquet height

In order to use the door leaf as usual and so that it does not swipe on the parquet floor, it is facilitated by the additional flooring height.

In most cases, it is only a few millimetres of the door that need to be shortened.

The most common problems with shorten door are

  • Finding the right height
  • Prevent the guide rail from slipping
  • Finding a safe stand for the door leaf
  • Prevent the “diswelling” on the saw cut

So that the above problems are no longer any more, proceed as follows:

  1. When the parquet floor has been installed, the door is hung briefly. The door hinge now measures how many millimetres the door protrudes. This is the height, which must be shortened at least on the door leaf. If the parquet floor or the subfloor is uneven, several adjustments should be expected.
  2. To prevent the door leaf from slipping, we set up two sufficiently wide folding stands. These must be the same height and should be wrapped with a blanket or similar (to avoid scratches).
  3. To shorten the door we use not a jigsaw. A plunge-circular saw with guide rail should always be used here. The guide rail of a good dipping circular saw (e.g. Festo, Bosch etc.) can be fixed with a screw clamp. This means that we place the guide rail on the door leaf and then fix it with one screw clamp each on the left and right.

Shortening the door – video guide

To prevent the door leaf fraying out when sawing with the plunge-circular saw, the following possibilities exist:

  1. Glue the place with a Tesa adhesive tape beforehand (dangerous with painted doors, as the paint can be removed with)
  2. “Scratching” with a sharp cutter knife, along the rail
  3. Place the diving circular saw on the rail and start. Then dip the saw blade very easily (2-3mm) and first drive along the rail with the saw. This has a similar effect to scribbled with the cutter, but in any case hits exactly the cutting line. Now the cut can be performed in the second gear and full depth.

Once steps 1 to 4 have been completed, it is necessary to test whether the door leaf is still swiping on the parquet floor. If so, steps 1 to 4 must be performed again.

If not, place the door leaf on the painting blocks one last time anyway. In order to prevent the veneer from fraying or tearing off later, you should now break both cut edges with a fine sandpaper.

That’s it – the door is shortened and now it can be hooked up again.

Machines for shortening the door (door leaf)

An even, firm and dry screed is an absolute requirement for the professional laying of parquet and a durable, high-quality floor. In this article you will learn what is important for the professional installation of the subfloor and how long screed for parquet must dry.

Testing of the subsoil

In principle, it is possible to lay parquet on various floors (also existing floor coverings such as PVC, felt or stone) provided they are flat, firm and dry.

The corresponding requirements for the substrate are precisely defined in DIN 18365 for floor covering work and DIN 18356 for parquet work.

If parquet is laid by a specialist, it is subject to a test obligation in accordance with these standards.

Should parquet be inserted on a newly built screed important aspects need to be taken into account in order to meet the conditions for a successful installation.

Flatness

Only a flat surface ensures an optimal result when laying the parquet floor.

Therefore, the flatness of the screed should be checked. This works best with a straight object, such as a straightening bar, a measuring wedge, or a water scale.

If the subfloor does not comply with the standard, the screed must be repaired accordingly before laying parquet.

Strength

In order for the underbody to achieve the necessary level of load-bearing capacity, it must have the appropriate strength.

In particular for the full-surface bonding of parquet using parquet adhesive, a solid screed is the decisive criterion for proper installation.

The condition of the substrate is checked by means of a lattice-scratch test.

For this purpose, diamond-shaped lines are carved into the screed with a pointed object or a special scratching device. There must be no eruptions or seds, otherwise it is not firm enough.

Drying time of the screed

Too much moisture in the subfloor is quite likely to cause damage to the floor covering sooner or later – regardless of whether it is hardwood flooring, vinyl flooring- or cork flooring.

If a new floor is not laid sufficiently dry, it can lead to increased swelling behavior, especially for wooden floors or coverings with support material made of wood fibreboards.

Unattractive dents and bulges, especially in the impact areas, are the result.

Caution is also required with barrier primers, as although moisture penetrates more slowly, it still remains in the house.

Receipt maturity of the screed

Careful procedure, sufficient drying time and exact residual moisture measurement are therefore basic requirements for the readiness of the screed for laying – only then is the subfloor suitable for laying parquet.

Screed is available in various versions, which are reflected in their composition and their drying time. Among the most common species Count:

Cement screed

The most commonly used cement screed consists of sand, cement (as binder) and water – and is therefore one of the flow screeds.

Supplied as a dry mixture, flow screed is mixed directly on site with the addition of water and introduced via a screed pump.

Cement screed is suitable for both indoor and outdoor use due to its moisture resistance and has stable strength values.

During installation and during the drying phase, the ambient temperature must not be below 5°C, draughts and humidity must be avoided – otherwise the surface may become uneven or even cracked.

When is cement screed accessible?

After 2 to 3 days the cement screed can be walked on, after approx. 10 days it can be fully loaded, the readiness for laying is reached after approx. 4 weeks drying phase.

Anhydrite screed

The anhydrite screed, which is also one of the flow screeds, is also enjoying increasing popularity, as the contained binder anhydrite shortens the drying phase.

Due to its good thermal conductivity, anhydrite screed is ideally suited for underfloor heating systems, but on the other hand it is not suitable for outdoor use, as the screed becomes unusable on contact with water.

Dry screed

There is no drying time when dry screed is used. Prefabricated panels made of plasterboard, wood-based material or cement-bound chipboard glued or screwed on the raw floor. Unevenness or too low construction heights must be balanced with granules or be piled up.

In addition, there are other, less common screed screeds such as magnesite screed, cast asphalt screed or synthetic resin screed.

Residual moisture determination

When drying ledges, approximately 1 cm of screed per week is generally considered to be a guideline.

If the screed is over 4 cm thick, two additional weeks should be taken into account, as it has an extended binding time.

In the case of underfloor heating, it is also recommended to heat the screed completely afterwards.

For this purpose, the flow temperature of the underfloor heating system is increased to two thirds of the heating load in 5°C increments and then lowered again. A detailed heating protocol should be kept for control.

After the drying or heating phase, an exact test of the residual moisture is necessary.

Measuring points that have already been set when the screed is applied facilitate the process and ensure a reliable result. Fast binders can affect the values and should therefore be disclosed.

The permissible residual moisture depends on both the type of as well as whether or not underfloor heating is available. Depending on the screed, the standard values are as follows:

  • cement screed: 2 % without floor heating / 1.8 % with floor heating
  • anhydrite screed: 0.5 % without underfloor heating / 0.3 % with underfloor heating
  • magnesite line: max. 4 %

Some parquet adhesives are already approved for higher residual moisture. However, the manufacturer’s information should always be treated with caution.

Moisture measurement with CM method

For residual moisture determination, the measurement is recommended using the CM method (calcium carbide method).

For this purpose, the pressure pressure of a crushed and shaken with calcium carbide is measured with a special device and determined as a value for the residual moisture using a conversion table.

Since the measurement is in principle very complex – and also the only approved test procedure for the publisher’s stiffener – it is recommended to contact a specialist.

As a natural floor covering made of wood, parquet has many advantages. However, its naturalness also has an effect in that the parquet works. So in order to be able to enjoy a beautiful and intact parquet floor in the long term, expansion joints must be taken into account. In the following you will find out how to proceed best in this respect when laying parquet parquet .

Elongation joints at parquet – why?

Parquet is made of wood and wood works.

In the event of temperature fluctuations or changes in humidity, parquet reacts accordingly with swells and dwindling. This means that it expands depending on the room conditions and pulls back together.

In order to give the parquet the necessary leeway, expansion joints must be observed as soon as they are laid, as they compensate for the spring and shrinkage behaviour of the parquet.

In addition, appropriate expansion joints ensure reduced sound transmission and therefore additionally optimise the result of the required impact sound insulation.

Where do you need expansion joints for parquet?

In the first place, expansion joints must be taken into account when laying parquet in the edge areas of the room.

The basic rule is a wall distance of at least 2 mm per metre of floor – so if the room is 4 m wide, 8 mm expansion joint is required.

With the usually recommended distance of 10 to 15 mm one is on the safe side in rooms of average size, in very large rooms the expansion joint should be correspondingly wider.

From a room dimension of 8 m width and 12 m length, an additional expansion joint is required by leaving out a gap between the parquet elements.

If an elongation joint is already included in the screed, one must also be inserted in the same place in the parquet.

It is well known that parquet all around requires expansion joints on the walls.

However, expansion joints for parquet must be taken into account not only where, but also in other places, where the floor can encounter immovable elements.

These include door frames, stairs, radiator pipes, end profiles e.g. for transitions to other floor coverings and much more.

In the case of heavy furniture, such as kitchens or built-in cupboards, it is advisable to install them before laying the hardwood flooring and then take into account the corresponding expansion joint under the plinth.

If this is not possible, the hardwood flooring under the built-in furniture on the other side requires twice the distance to the wall, as it can only work in one direction.

Is there a difference between bonded and floating laid parquet?

Expansion joints are always necessary for all hardwood flooring, regardless of whether it is glued over the entire surface or installed as a floating installation.

The difference, however, is that glued parquet works less, as it is fixed to the subfloor.

The smallest extent occurs with glued floorparquet, as it is not only connected to the screed, but the material is also glued transversely to each other.

Correspondingly, the expansion joints may be smaller when the parquet is glued, depending on the recommended manufacturer’s instructions. Even with head joints, less distance is sufficient, as the hardwood flooring unfolds its greatest expansion in width here.

Different, on the other hand, with floating parquet. Here, the parquet panels are only loosely laid on the substrate and accordingly have high spring and shrinkage behaviour.

Therefore, in this case, it is strongly advisable to maintain a greater distance in the expansion joints.

What happens if parquet has no expansion joints?

If parquet is laid without paying attention to the correspondingly large expansion joints, the wood cannot work sufficiently.

The parquet panels collide when they are expanded or stand by fixed room elements and begin to bulge.

This not only looks ugly, but can even lead to permanent damage to the parquet.

For example, when individual parquet panels break out of the gluing or the click system breaks.

Floating parquet can still bulge even if the ground is only on one side.

If no expansion joints have been adhered to as part of the parquet laying, you can also install them afterwards.

This involves a certain amount of effort, but it is always worthwhile compared to the inconvenience of a damaged parquet.

Tips for erecting expansion joints

Observance of expansion joints is particularly challenging for laymen.

The use of spacers, which are placed between the wall and the parquet when laying and removed after the laying work has been completed, has therefore proved to be successful.

This ensures that a uniform expansion joint is maintained. In commercially available laying sets for parquet, such wedges or blocks are usually already included or can be retrofitted in the DIY store.

For protection – and of course also because of the more attractive appearance – the expansion joints can be covered accordingly at the end: With skirting boards in the wall areas, rails or profiles at transitions or doors or pipe rosettes or similar covers for heating pipes etc.

Of course, expansion joints can also be filled with joint sealing compound. Here, however, it is essential to ensure that it is a suitable, permanently elastic material, otherwise the parquet will not be able to work.

If the decision has been made in favour of parquet as a floor covering, it is not only the design and decor of the parquet that is important. The necessary attention should also be paid to the appropriate footfall sound insulation.

In this article we have summarised why this is so important, what its tasks are and what is important when choosing the best impact sound insulation for hardwood flooring. We have already written an article elsewhere on the subject of impact sound insulation for vinyl floors.

Why is footfall sound insulation so important for parquet?

The most important task of footfall sound insulation in parquet is primarily an acoustic one, because every strain on the parquet causes a noise.

A distinction is made between walking sound and impact sound. While walking sound is only perceived in the room itself, footfall sound is also transmitted over walls and floor to surrounding premises.

Whether steps, armchair backs or the vibration of the washing machine – without appropriate footfall sound insulation, any use of the parquet would also be heard in rooms adjacent to the respective room with hardwood flooring by the way, above or below.

For this reason, footfall sound insulation as a minimum requirement for sound insulation is now also mandatory.

Regulated in the DIN 4109 “Noise insulation in building construction”, the regulations on impact sound insulation serve to protect people in surrounding living and working spaces from unacceptable sound transmission.

However, this regulation only applies to new buildings, old buildings are currently excluded from the requirements for sound insulation.

However, footfall sound insulation is useful in all rooms, so that not every step can be heard throughout the house.

Above all floating parquet vibrates with every movement and thus behaves like a resonance body that transmits the impact sound to the screed underneath and thus amplifies it even further.

However, even without any clearance between the parquet and the subfloor – as is the case with parquet glued over the entire surface parquet – a noise is generated which can be counteracted with impact sound insulation.

Other functions of impact sound insulation under parquet

In addition to sound insulation, footfall sound insulation under parquet fulfils other tasks.

Depending on the material used, unevenness in the subfloor can thus be compensated to a certain extent, which ultimately ensures a more even result when laying parquet.

Furthermore, parquet insulation also protects against rising cold from the subfloor and therefore has an additional thermal insulation effect, although impact sound insulation cannot replace adequate insulation .

What materials are available for parquet footfall sound insulation?

In the search for impact sound insulation for hardwood flooring, there are various solutions that are often referred to in the trade as impact sound insulation mats or parquet underlays .

All products have in common that the parquet is protected by the impact sound insulation and that it can be laid floating without any problems.

Although a full-surface bonding of the parquet is accordingly not required, the footfall sound insulation in the parquet, however, further reduces the sound unwinding.

Commercially available footfall sound insulation for parquet can be different materials.

Plastic

Plastic impact sound insulation is made of PE foam (polyethylene foam) and is available in sheets or films in different thicknesses and finishes.

In principle, a footfall sound insulation made of PE foam can be used under all floors, the differences lie in the thickness of the insulation material as well as in its insulation value.

For hard, noisy parquet, the use of stronger PE foam panels is recommended, as they better insulate the impact sound, while for softer and quieter floors, thinner aluminium films with glued-on PE layer also serve good.

Not to be confused is a footfall sound insulation made of PE film with the conventional PE film, which is used for the insertion of vapour barriers.

Cork

The natural product cork not only has tread-sound-insulating properties, but is also known for its thermally insulating effect.

A footfall sound insulation made of cork is available as panels or on rolls and can be cut easily and individually, which makes the laying work much easier.

Wood fibre

Panels made of debarked and crushed into wood fibres residual wood are also well suited as footfall sound insulation for parquet.

Due to the size of the panels, a fast, comprehensive installation is possible. Footfall sound insulation made of wood fibre panels not only has a sound proofing effect, but also heat insulating and moisture-regulating.

Hemp felt

Available as different widths and long rolls, hemp felt offers not only protection against noise, but also from cold.

In addition, the material properties make it easy to compensate for unevenness in the soil.

Otherwise, alternative materials such as:

  • Styrofoam (EPS)
  • Ripple board
  • Coconut fibre
  • Expanded clay spill

What is the best footfall sound insulation for parquet?

Which footfall sound insulation is the best depends on the underbody.

Whereas in the case of impact sound insulation the principle used to apply, the denser or thicker, the better, the differences between the different materials in terms of sound insulation are relatively small nowadays.

In contrast to most products used in building and living, there is no published test for impact sound insulation.

In order to be able to compare the different impact sound insulations, certain characteristic values and standardized test methods have been developed, which are based on the different requirements for impact sound insulation.

Constructive requirements

The design requirements for footfall sound insulation for Parquet essentially comprises three factors:

Moisture protection

If parquet is laid on a mineral substrate such as screed, the moisture protection of the impact sound insulation plays a decisive role.

In order to be able to block residual moisture from the substrate, a steam barrier or steam brake is necessary. Modern impact sound insulation is now often already equipped with an integrated moisture film, so that no additional film has to be laid. The key figure is the SD value, which should be at least 75 m.

It is important that impact sound insulation with an integrated steam barrier must not be used if it is a wooden substrate.

Any residual moisture would then remain trapped in the substructure and could not escape upwards, resulting in permanent damage to the substructure.

Compensation of unevenness

The PC value defines the balancing capacity of the impact sound insulation – i.e. how high spot bumps in the underbody can be. Since the subsurfaces erected in accordance with the norm have a maximum of 1 mm high spot unevenness, a PC value of 0.5 mm is usually sufficient for the impact sound insulation for parquet.

Coarser unevenness of more than 3 mm must in any case be levelled out in advance by grinding or filling with levelling compound.

Thermal insulation value or heat flow behaviour

The thermal insulation value is particularly important if the parquet footfall sound insulation is laid on underfloor heating systems with parquet.

This is because the floor is heated – or cooled – the material should have as little thermal insulation as possible, while unheated floors should have the highest possible heat transfer resistance.

The recommended thermal insulation values for impact sound insulation for Parquet are:

  • 0,06 m2K/W bei Böden mit Fußbodenheizung
  • 0.04m2K/W for cooled floors
  • 0.075m2K/W for unheated floors

However, the decisive factor for impact sound insulation on parquet with underfloor heating is that the thermal resistance for the entire floor structure must not exceed 0.15 m2K/W. Accordingly, not only the value of the footfall sound insulation alone is decisive, but must always be considered in combination with the value of the floor covering.

Requirements for resilience

The degree of stress on the floor also plays a role in the selection of the footfall sound insulation for parquet is a role. Because the parquet underlay must be can withstand different loads described by means of key figures. to become.

Dynamic loads

These recurring loads, such as walking the parquet or moving armchairs or other pieces of furniture, are expressed in cycles – the longer the characteristics of the impact sound insulation remain unchanged under load, the higher the specified value.

The minimum requirement at normal level of stress, as is the case in residential areas, is 10,000 cycles.

Permanent / temporary loads

Heavy pieces of furniture lead to permanent or temporary Impact sound insulation loads for parquet. While the minimum requirement of 10kPA (1t/m2) for temporary loads mostly absolute is sufficient, the value of 2kPA (200 kg/m2) can be used for permanent loads from kitchen furniture or large cabinets, for example, can be reached quickly, which is primarily important for thin footfall sound insulation.

Protection against heavy falling objects

The RLB value indicates the height from which an item is floor may fall without damaging the impact sound insulation Suffers. The minimum requirement here is 50 cm, but the value should be significantly higher.

Acoustic requirements

As already mentioned, a distinction is made between walking sound and footfall sound when making noises.

The acoustic requirements for impact sound insulation for parquet basically cover both. However, there are still no concrete reference values with regard to the reduction of walking noise .

However, the situation is different when it comes to impact sound minimization: For example, the volume of impact sound with appropriate parquet insulation should be at least 14 db lower by than without, with good impact sound insulation achieving values of 20 db and more.

There is no right or wrong for the laying direction of parquet.

However, it is crucial that the overall impression and atmosphere of the room are significantly influenced by this. The following article gives you an overview of how the laying direction of parquet affects a room – and what you should consider when making your decision.

Which factors influence the installation direction of Parquet there is?

Basically, a distinction can be made between three variants in the laying direction of parquet:

  • Along
  • Across
  • or diagonal.

Depending on the size of the room, the structural conditions and the light incidence, a room acquires its own character.

Room size

The size of a room can be visually consciously influenced by the installation direction of parquet.

The laying of hardwood flooring on the long side emphasizes the room shape. So if the parquet is laid in the direction of the longer side of the room, the room looks even longer. By laying the parquet across the floor, however, rooms appear wider.

In itself, even wide spaces achieve more depth effect when transversely laid, while narrow, long corridors are optically shortened and widened – and thus appear more even. If, on the other hand, a installation takes place in the direction of space, the room is additionally “stretched”.

In addition to the laying direction, the dimensions of the parquet elements, or the parquet type also affect the visual size of the room.

The following principle applies: The larger the parquet parts, the smaller the room.

If a room is to be enlarged visually, it should therefore be used in return for small-format parquet.

If a room is not to be emphasized in either direction, cube patterns or cassette shelves are optimal. These appear neutral in any room, regardless of whether they are laid parallel to the walls or at a certain angle.

The classic herringbone parquet is also suitable if neither longitudinal nor transversely laid parquet is desired.

Light

In living rooms with windows, the interplay of natural light incidence and installation direction of the parquet also plays a role in terms of the spatial effect.

If the parquet is laid in the direction of the primary light source, the light is optically directed to the centre of the room and refracts less, so that joints in the parquet are hardly visible.

If, in contrast, the parquet is laid transversely to the light source, these not only appear wider, but also joints, shocks and graining of the wood are more pronounced by the refraction of light.

If the characteristic appearance of the parquet is to be consciously underlined, it is therefore recommended to cross-laying, if it is to remain more discreet, longitudinal laying is the better choice. It should also be noted that when the parquet is laid across, not only the texture of the wood is underlined, but also unevenness or possible signs of wear and tear become more visible.

Building conditions

Walls and ceilings as well as the direction of support beams can also have an effect on the optimal installation direction of parquet.

If differently laid room elements cross, the room appears restless, which in turn can have a negative effect on the living atmosphere. Therefore, different directions of laying should be avoided as a matter of principle.

In addition, in nailed dressing floors, such as they are often used in very large rooms, longitudinal direction is preferred, as this meets the spring and shrinkage behavior of the parquet.

In order to be able to allow for the expansion joints required for floating installation, care should also be taken when choosing the direction of installation to ensure that the parquet does not extend beyond door thresholds, but is laid individually in each room.

Laying direction of parquet – a question of taste

Unless special structural conditions make a particular installation direction necessary, design aspects and personal preferences are in the foreground of the decision.

However, since the laying direction of parquet is of great importance in terms of the character and atmosphere of a room, as mentioned above, the final decision should be taken by the owner.

In addition, it can be quite helpful to test the effect of the laying direction on site using several wooden strips or parquet samples before parquet laying or to simulate this virtually on the computer using special interior design programs.

If an existing floor covering of tiles is to be replaced with parquet, this is generally possible without removing the old tiles.

However, there are a number of important aspects to consider when laying parquet on tiles. The following article will tell you what these are.

Which parquet is for laying on tiles Suitable?

Multilayer parquet is best suited for laying on tiles.

Due to its construction in several layers, less tension is transferred from the parquet to the underlying tiles.

But also the laying of solid parquet is possible in principle. However, in this case it is advisable to use a decoupling pad (e.g. fleece) as a transition between tiles and parquet, as this reduces the voltages occurring.

The best choice for solid parquet is oak, as this type of parquet has relatively low swelling and shrinkage behaviour compared to other parquet types – even in damp conditions – and works correspondingly less.

What is to be done in the preparation of the tiled floor Note?

With the tiled floor itself, it is advantageous if it is as large, stable tiles as possible. Mosaic tiles are suitable for laying of parquet less good, as the many joints make it easy to deformations of the parquet.

Before parquet can be laid on tiles, the floor must be prepared accordingly.

It is necessary to clean the tiles thoroughly in the first step and remove all dirt and residues of care products, otherwise a separating layer may form and the parquet adhesive may not hold properly.

Furthermore, the substrate for laying parquet on tiles must be flat and solid.

Therefore, it is necessary to check carefully whether the existing tiles still adhere accordingly to the substrate.

The best way to find out is to tap every single tile. If hollow-sounding or loose tiles are discovered during this process, they should be removed together with tile adhesive seam and the resulting gaps in the floor filled with filler.

The tiled floor is then sanded and – if necessary – a 2-component epoxy resin primer is applied as an adhesion bridge. This is too smooth on its own after drying to absorb a levelling compound. Therefore the primer must be sprinkled with quartz sand directly during application. This is the only way to ensure mechanical bonding of the filler to be applied afterwards.

The final and decisive step in laying parquet on tiles is theapplication of a suitable levelling compound, with which joints and other unevenness in the tiled floor are levelled.

Only when the substrate is completely dry, flat and solid can the parquet be laid on the tiles. The prepared work requires the greatest care, so that there are no undesirable problems when laying the parquet.

It is therefore generally advisable to have parquet laid on tiles by a specialist.

Parquet on tiles: fully glued or floating Moved?

Basically, parquet can be laid on tiles both full-surface glued as well as floating . In both cases, dismantling is not possible, as the tiles are severely affected by the preceding preparations and are no longer visually appealing.

In general, experts recommend full-surface gluing of parquet to tiles using parquet adhesive, as this type of installation has certain advantages:

Due to the fixed connection with the substrate, fully glued parquet ensures a pleasant kicking feeling and also prevents sound transmission.

Therefore, in this case, footfall sound insulation is not necessary. With floating installation, on the other hand, the parquet only lies loosely on the tiles and thus amplifies the sound. Accordingly, it is essential to ensure effective impact sound insulation for this type of installation.

In addition, a vapour barrier is required for floating parquet on tiles in order to be able to absorb any moisture on the substrate.

It should be noted that the floor construction with floating laid parquet on tiles becomes considerably higher due to the required steam barrier and impact sound insulation than with fully glued parquet.

As a result, there may be unsightly height differences at transitions to other floor coverings or doors may have to be shortened.

In rooms with floor heating, floating parquet on tiles is not recommended. The additional layers have a strong thermal insulation effect and lead to a reduced thermal conductivity of the floor.

parquet is a robust and durable floor covering. Nevertheless, it can happen that a new floor is desired in the course of renovation or remodelling and laminate is chosen. The question then arises as to the correct procedure for laying laminate on hardwood flooring.

Which parquet is suitable as a substrate for laminate?

In general, it should be noted that laminate can not be laid on every type of parquet.

Only fully glued parquet is suitable as a subfloor for the new floor – in this case there is nothing to prevent direct installation.

Laying laminate on floating parquet is not recommended. In this case the parquet should first be completely removed before the new floor can be laid.

What should be considered when laying laminate on parquet?

Apart from the fact that the parquet must be fully glued, there are a number of other factors involved in the laying of laminate must be taken into account on parquet:

Just like the screed when laying a new floor, the parquet must be clean, dry and level before the laminate can be laid on it. Larger unevenness should be levelled in advance by sanding or filling with levelling compound. However, minor unevenness of approx. 1 to 2 mm can usually be compensated with a impact sound insulation for parquet .

The impact sound insulation is highly recommended for laminate on parquet because the combination of the two floor coverings would otherwise be very noisy.

Moisture-permeable insulating materials such as cork or cardboard are suitable. It is even easier if a laminate with integrated footfall sound insulation is used.

A vapour barrier, on the other hand, should not be used for laminate parquet always. Parquet is a wooden floor that absorbs or releases moisture. This could easily cause waterlogging under the PVC film, which would result in permanent damage to the floor.

In order to achieve more stability of the floor, the laminate should be laid crosswise to the existing parquet. It should be noted, however, that light incidence can cause a changed joint pattern.

The use of click laminate is recommended, as this is not only relatively easy to install without expert help, but can also be removed again without leaving any residue, as it does not have to be glued.

Since laminate expands and contracts again with temperature fluctuations, expansion joints should be taken into account when laying laminate on hardwood flooring. This gives the floor the necessary clearance without causing undesirable joint formation or dents.

If laminate is laid on hardwood flooring, this changes the construction height, or thickness of the flooring. It may therefore be necessary to shorten door frames or leaves accordingly. Height differences at transitions can be laminated with profiles.

Adhesives for glued installation (non floating)

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Anyone who decides on parquet as a floor covering must first think about more than just the type of parquet, whether it should be solid parquet or multi-layer parquet.

The choice of the parquet type also determines the way in which the parquet is to be laid.

Solid parquet must be glued down, whereas the laying of the planks can also be done “floating” with finished parquet.

Of course, the floor price certainly plays a role in the choice of the product.

When buy parquet some technical aspects should also be considered. For example, not all types of parquet are suitable for underfloor heating.

Last but not least, the durability of the hardwood flooring also plays a role. Because if you live e.g. for rent, there should at least be the possibility to remove the parquet without leaving any residues when moving out. In this case, with laying parquet the “floating installation” is certainly preferable to gluing.

What does a “glued-on installation” mean?

With “glued installation”, the parquet is firmly and permanently bonded to the subfloor using parquet adhesive.

When purchasing, it is important to remember that solid wood parquet is best glued over the entire surface on a suitable and even base.

It is advisable to have this done by the expert.

There are good reasons for gluing parquet or hardwood flooring planks over the entire surface and firmly bonding them to the substrate.

In addition to certain types of parquet, which cannot be laid in any other way, gluing the parquet guarantees above all a high durability.

Glued parquet made of solid wood is easy to renovate and lasts for many decades even in rooms with heavy use of the floor covering.

The direct and firm connection of the parquet with the subfloor thus stands for a high load-bearing capacity.

What does “floating laying” mean?

In contrast to glued installation, with “floating installation” the individual parquet planks are not connected to the subfloor, but only to each other. The parquet lies unfixed on the subfloor, “floats” thus on this.

The connection between the individual pre-finished parquet elements varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, but is usually made by simple click systems.

For the floating parquet installation, therefore, only little manual skill is required. It is also easy to handle even for laypersons. The parquet floor can then be walked on immediately.

Gluing parquet: What are the advantages and disadvantages?

Advantages:

With glued parquet there is no room for movement of the floor and therefore a much lower noise pollution due to impact sound than with floating parquet.

The firm connection with the subfloor ensures that the glued parquet cannot vibrate.

The treading noises are significantly quieter than with floating installation, where the flooring amplifies the sound when it is set in motion by steps or movements.

Parquet glued laid (industrial parquet)
Raw industrial parquet is firmly glued to the substrate. After drying, it must be sanded and sealed.

Glued parquet has a tendency to not to joint formation and material fatigue due to its firm connection with the subfloor.

This means that hardly any cracks can form even under permanent load, into which moisture can penetrate.

Glued parquet is in total very resilient, which significantly increases the service life of the floor covering.

In addition, the parquet can be well renovated during its lifetime and can also be sanded some times over time, if necessary.

Cons:

Glued parquet requires more time during installation and is therefore more cost-intensive.

With glued parquet, it is very difficult or even impossible to correct laying errors after the glue has dried, because once glued, parquet elements can hardly be detached and realigned without damage.

The parquet is not immediately walkable after laying, because the adhesive must first harden. This takes at least 12 hours.

Large quantities of adhesive are required for bonding to the substrate.

Of course, care should be taken to use an adhesive without solvents.

After removing an already glued parquet floor, a reuse is no longer possible.

Also, the removal of the glued parquet can be quite time-consuming.

Accordingly, glued parquet is clearly designed for durability and not for flexibility.

Why glue parquet?

Basically, parquet can be laid or glued as a floating floor.

Bonding has several advantages. Glued parquet is mainly suitable when a very long-term use is planned. This is because the removal of glued parquet is considerably more complicated.

If you live in a rented apartment, you should definitely inform the landlord and ask for permission.

When must parquet be glued? In any case then, if a complicated parquet pattern or a demanding parquet type is planned.

The glued installation technique is ideal for a home with children or in rooms subject to heavy use.

In the laying pattern and in the transition to other rooms, no expansion joints are usually necessary when gluing.

Another factor if the question of when to glue parquet is answered positively: What is important is an adhesive with “healthy” properties, free of solvents and low in emissions.

Advantages and disadvantages of floating installation

Advantages:

The special advantage of floating installation is that it is very easy and quick to do, even by laymen with some skill.

It is only important that the subfloor is level when the parquet is laid.

To ensure this, there is, for example, self-levelling filler. Once the laying work is complete, the parquet can be walked on immediately and the room can be furnished.

Another advantage is the possibility of taking up the floating parquet again if necessary, replacing it if the taste changes, or laying it again elsewhere.

Especially if the parquet is to be laid in a rented apartment, the residue-free removal when moving out is an aspect that should be considered before buying. Floating parquet is the flexible solution here.

Cons:

Floating parquet floors have a lower durability compared to glued parquet floors, as vibrations of the floor covering cannot be avoided.

In the long run, this leads to higher mechanical stress and thus to material fatigue at the element connections.

In the course of time cracks can develop here, through which moisture can penetrate the wood. Floating parquet floors are also more difficult to renovate if they vibrate, e.g. during grinding off.

It should be noted that parquet can only be used for floating installation if it has also been designed and designated for this purpose.

The main disadvantage is the impact sound, which is caused by the fact that the flooring gives way with every step. Like a soundboard, the sound is amplified by vibrations. A impact sound insulation must be applied before floating installation of the parquet on the subfloor to reduce this effect.

With some finished parquet products, the footfall sound insulation is already attached to the individual parquet elements.

Why lay parquet floating?

Floating installation requires little or no adhesive.

This means that there is no need for full-surface bonding to the substrate. Only the individual elements are connected with each other.

The work can be done by do-it-yourselfers and talented laymen. If you use parquet with tongue and groove, the joints can be glued additionally, but this is not not necessary.

If you live in a rented apartment or are planning to remove or replace the parquet floor after a few years, parquet is best installed as a floating floor.

The bottom can be removed relatively easily if necessary. Floating installation is not suitable for solid parquet, this type of parquet must be glued. If, on the other hand, you use multi-layer parquet or ready-to-lay parquet, the floor can be laid as a floating floor. Floating parquet is not as resilient as glued parquet.

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Parquet best glued with underfloor heating

Anyone who has underfloor heating does not therefore have to do without a parquet floor. However, there are a few things to consider. Thus, certain types of wood are less and others more suitable for installation over underfloor heating.

Wood species with unfavourable swelling and shrinkage behaviour such as beech and maple should be avoided at all costs, whereas, for example, oak and walnut are suitable.

However, the decisive factor is that with underfloor heating, the parquet should definitely be glued, because only then is good heat transfer possible.

With floating parquet, on the other hand, there is a layer of air between the subfloor and the parquet, which acts like an insulating layer and impairs heat transfer.